Beyond feelings - A guide to critical thinking / Vincent Ryan Ruggiero 批判性思考(獨立思考)指南

清晨6:31


英文书朗读阅读练习,中文为自我理解,并非中文书翻译内容

Introduction

Beyond feeling is designed to introduce you to the subject of critical thinking .

The subject may be new to you because it has not been emphasized(重视,注重) in most elementary and secondary schools.

In fact, until fairly recently most colleges gave it little attention.

For the past four decades , the dominant emphasis (主要强调)has been on subjectivity rather then objectivity on feeling rather then on thought.

简介

超越感觉这本书是为了向你介绍什么是批判性思考。这个主题对你来说可能是新的,因为它在大多数小学和中学都没有被强调。事实上,直到最近,大多数大学才开始关注批判性思考。在过去的四十年里,主要强调的是主观性而不是客观性,强调的是感觉而不是思想。

Over the past several decades , however , a number of studies of American's schools have criticized the neglect (忽视)of critical thinking , and a growing number of educators and leaders in business , industry ,and professions have urged(敦促,促成,强烈希望) the development of new course and teaching materials to overcome that neglect.

然而,在过去的几十年里,对美国学校的一些研究批评了对批判性思维的忽视,越来越多的教育家和商业、工业和专业领域的领导人,敦促开发新的课程和教材以克服这种忽视。

It is no exaggeration( 夸张) to say that critical thinking is one of the most important subjects you will study in college regardless (不管)of your academic(学术) major. 

The quality of your schoolwork, your efforts(努力) in your career, your contributions(贡献) to community life, your conduct(执行)of personal affairs(事务)—all will depend on your ability to solve problems and make decisions.

毫不夸张地说,批判性思维是你在大学里将学习的最重要的科目之一,无论你的学术专业是什么。你的学校作业的质量,你在职业生涯中的努力,你对社区生活的贡献,你对个人事务的处理--所有这一切都取决于你解决问题和做出决定的能力.

This book has three main sections. The first "The context"(背景,语境) will help you understand such important concepts as individuality(个性) , critical thinking , truth , knowledge , opinion , evidence and argument and overcome attitudes and ideas that obstruct critical thinking.

本书有三个主要部分。第一部分 "背景 "将帮助你理解诸如个性、批判性思维、真理、知识、观点、证据和论证等重要概念,并克服阻碍批判性思维的态度和观念。

The second section,"The Pitfalls"(陷阱),will teach you to recognize and avoid the most common errors in thinking.

The third section "A strategy",will help you acquire(獲得) the various(各式各樣)skills used in addressing problems and issues.

The section includes tip on identifying and overcoming (克服)your personal intellectual(智力) weakness as well as techniques for becoming more observant clarifying issues.

Conducting inquiries evaluating evidence analyzing other peoples's reviews and making sound judgments.

第二部分,"陷阱",将教你认识和避免思维中最常见的错误。

第三部分 "策略 "将帮助你获得处理问题和议题时使用的各种技能。

该部分包括识别和克服个人智力弱点的提示,以及提高观察力澄清问题的技巧。

进行调查,评估证据,分析其他人的评论,并作出正确的判断。

At the and of each chapter, you will find a number of applications cover problems and issues both timely(及時) and timeless.

the final application in each of the first thirteen chapters invites you to examine(審查)an especially important issue about which informed(報告資料) opinion(意見) is divided(分歧)

在每一章的后面,你会发现一些应用涵盖了及时和永恒的问题和议题。前十三章中每一章的最后一个应用都会邀请你研究一个特别重要的问题,对于这个问题,知情者的意见存在分歧。

Students sometimes get the idea that textbook must be read page by page and that reading ahead violates(違反) some unwritten rule.

This notion is mistaken.

Students background knowledge varies(不盡相同) widely, what one student knows very well , another knows only vaguely(隱約) and third is totally unfamiliar  with. Anytime you need or want to look ahead to an explanation in a later chapter, by all means do so. Let's say you make a statement and a friends says "That's relativism (相對主義)pure and simple If you aren't  sure exactly what she means to go the index, look up "relativism" proceed(著手進行) to appropriate page and find out.

学生们有时会有这样的想法:课本必须一页一页地读,提前阅读违反了一些不成文的规定。

这种想法是错误的。学生的背景知识差异很大,一个学生非常了解,另一个学生只是模糊地了解,第三个学生则完全不熟悉。任何时候你需要或想在后面的章节中提前看一下解释,都可以这样做。比方说,你做了一个声明,一个朋友说:"这就是纯粹的相对主义。 如果你不确定她到底是什么意思,就去找索引,查找 "相对主义",然后进入相应的页面,找出答案。

Looking ahead is especially prudent ˈpruː.d ə nt /(謹慎) in the case concepts and procedures(程序) relevant to the end-of-chapter applications. One such concept is plagiarism ˈpleɪ.dʒɚ.ɪ.z ə m /(抄襲). If you are not completely clear on what 

constitutes ˈkɑːn.stə.tuːt /(構成) plagiarism , why it is unacceptable , and how to avoid it , take a few minutes right now to learn. Look for the section "Avoiding Plagiarism " toward the end of the chapter 2.

Similarly, if you are not as skilled as you would like to be doing library or internet research , it would be a good idea to read chapter 17 now. Doing so could save you a great deal of time and effort completing homework as assignment (任務) əˈsaɪn.mənt /

在与章末应用相关的案例概念和程序中,提前看一看是特别谨慎的。其中一个概念是剽窃。如果你不完全清楚什么是抄袭,为什么它是不可接受的,以及如何避免它,现在就花几分钟时间来学习。请在第二章末尾寻找 "避免剽窃 "一节。

同样,如果你在图书馆或互联网上的研究还不够熟练,那么现在阅读第17章将是一个好主意。这样做可以为你节省大量的时间和精力来完成家庭作业。

The Context  (背景介紹,情境,脈絡,框架,上下文)

這裏意外查找到了陳芳誼解釋與介紹 “context and content” ,很多例句跟用法,


Anyone who wishes to master an activity must first understand its tools and rules. 
This is as true of critical thinking as it is of golf, carpentry(木工), flying a plane, or brain surgery(外科手術). In critical thinking, however, the tools are not material objects but concepts, and the rules govern ˈɡʌv.ɚn /mental rather than physical performance. 
This first section explores seven important concepts—individuality, critical thinking, truth, knowledge, opinion, evidence, and argument— with a chapter devoted(在...投入) to each. Most of these concepts are so familiar that you may be inclined ɪnˈklaɪnd /(傾向)to wonder whether there is any point to examining them. The answer is yes, for three reasons. 

First, much of what is commonly believed about these concepts is mistaken. Second, who ever examines them carefully is always rewarded with fresh insights. Third, the more thorough  ˈθɝː.oʊ /(徹底)your knowledge of these concepts, the more proficient  prəˈfɪʃ。ə nt /(精通)you will be in your thinking.

任何希望掌握一项活动的人都必须首先了解其工具和规则。批判性思维和高尔夫、木工、驾驶飞机或脑外科手术一样,都是如此。
然而,在批判性思维中,工具不是物质,而是概念。规则支配着精神上而不是身体上的表现。
这第一节探讨了七个重要的概念--个体性。批判性思维、真理、知识、观点、证据和论证。
每个概念都有一章专门讨论。这些概念中的大多数是如此熟悉,以至于你可能倾向于怀疑研究这些概念是否有任何意义。

答案是肯定的,原因有三。
首先,人们对这些概念的普遍看法有很多是错误的。
第二,仔细研究这些概念的人总是能获得新的见解。
第三,你对这些概念的了解越透彻,你的思维就会越熟练。


CHAPTER 1 
Who Are You? 

Suppose someone asked, “Who are you?” It would be simple enough to respond with your name. But if the person wanted to know the entire story about who you are, the question would be more difficult to answer. 
You’d obviously have to give the details of your height, age, and weight. You’d also have to include all your sentiments(情緒) ˈsen.t̬ə.mənt / and preferences(偏好) /ˈpref.ər.əns/, even the secret ones you’ve never shared with anyone—your affection (感情)for your loved ones; your desire to please the people you associate with; your dislike of your older sister’s husband; your allegiance (忠誠)əˈliː.dʒ ə ns /to your favorite beverageˈbev.ɚ.ɪdʒ /,(飲料) brand of clothing, and music.

假设有人问:"你是谁?" 回答你的名字是很简单的。
但如果这个人想知道关于你是谁的整个故事,这个问题就比较难回答了。你显然必须提供你的身高、年龄和体重等细节。你还必须包括你所有的情感和喜好,甚至是你从未与任何人分享过的秘密--你对你所爱的人的感情;你想取悦与你交往的人;你不喜欢你姐姐的丈夫;你对你最喜欢的饮料、服装品牌和音乐的忠诚度。

Your attitudes couldn’t be overlooked either—your impatience when an issue gets complex, your aversion(厭惡)əˈvɝː.ʃ ə n /to certain courses, your fear of high places and dogs and speaking in public. The list would go on. To be complete, it would have to include all your characteristics(特徵)ˌker.ək.təˈrɪs.tɪk /—not only the physical but also the emotional and intellectual. (知識份子,以邏輯思考的能力)ˌɪn.t̬ ə lˈek.tʃu.əl /To provide all that information would be quite a chore (瑣事,令人不快)tʃɔːr /. But suppose the questioner was still curious and asked, “How did you get the way you are?” If your patience were not yet exhausted, chances are you’d answer something like this: “I’m this way because I choose to be, because I’ve considered other sentiments and preferences and attitudes and have made my selections. The ones I have chosen fit my style and personality best.” That answer is natural enough, and in part it’s true. But in a larger sense, it’s not true. The impact of the world on all of us is much greater than most of us realize.

你的态度也不能被忽视--当一个问题变得复杂时,你的不耐烦,你对某些课程的厌恶,你对高处、狗和公开演讲的恐惧。这个名单还在继续。为了完整起见,它必须包括你所有的特征--不仅是身体上的,还有情感和智力上的。

要提供所有这些信息将是一件相当麻烦的事情。但是,假设提问者仍然很好奇,问道:"你是怎么变成这样的?" 如果你的耐心还没有耗尽,你有可能会这样回答。"我是这样的,因为我选择了这样的方式,我已经考虑了其他的情感、偏好和态度,并且做出了自己的选择。我选择的那些风格和个性最适合我的" 这个答案很自然,而且在一定程度上它是真实的。但在更大的某种意义上,这不是真的。世界对我们所有人的影响要比我们大多数人意识到的大得多。

The Influence of Time and Place

Not only are you a member of a particular species, Homo sapiens(智人) ˌhoʊ.moʊ ˈsæp.i.enz /, but you also exist at a particular time in the history of that species and in a particular place on the planet. That time and place are defined by specific(具體的spəˈsɪf.ɪk / circumstances  (環境)ˈsɝː.kəm.stæns / understandings, beliefs, and customs, all of which limit your experience and influence your thought patterns. If you had lived in America in colonial (殖民) kəˈloʊ.ni.əl / times, you likely would have had no objection to the practice of barring (禁止) women from serving on a jury (陪審團)entering into a legal contract, owning property, or voting. 

If you had lived in the nineteenth century, you would have had no objection to young children being denied an education and being hired out by their parents to work sixteen hours a day, nor would you have given any thought to the special needs of adolescence.(青春期) ˌæd.əˈles. ə ns / (The concept of adolescence was not invented until 1904.)1

时间和地点的影响
你不仅是一个特定物种的成员,即智人,而且你还存在于该物种於地球历史上的一个特定时间和一个特定的地点。这个时间和地点是由特定的环境、理解、信仰和习俗構成,所有这些都限制了你的经验并影响你的思维模式。
如果你曾如果你生活在美国的殖民时代,你可能不会反对禁止妇女担任陪审员、签订法律合同、拥有财产或投票的做法。如果你生活在十九世纪,你就不会反对那些不讓年幼的孩子接受教育并被父母雇用去工作的作法, 你也不会考虑到青少年的特殊需要。(青春期的概念直到1904年才被发明出来)1。

If you had been raised in the Middle East, you would stand much closer to people you converse with than you do in America. If you had been raised in India, you might be perfectly comfortable having your parents choose your spouse (伴侶)spaʊs / for you.
If your native language were Spanish and your knowledge of English modest(謙虛)ˈmɑː.dɪst /, you probably would be confused by some English colloquialisms.(口語化) kəˈloʊ.kwi.ə.lɪ.z ə m / James Henslin offers two amusing  (有趣的)əˈmjuː.zɪŋ /examples of such confusion: Chevrolet Novas initially (最初)ɪˈnɪʃ. ə l.i / sold very poorly in Mexico because no va in Spanish means “it doesn’t work”; and Perdue chickens were regarded (看待) rɪˈɡɑːrd /with a certain suspicion (懷疑)səˈspɪʃ。ə n / (or worse) because the company’s slogan—”It takes a tough man to make a tender chicken”— became in Spanish “It takes an aroused man to make a chicken affectionate əˈfek.ʃ ə n.ət /.”2

如果你是在中东长大的,你会比在美国更接近与你交谈的人。如果你是在印度长大的,你可能完全可以让你的父母为你选择配偶。如果你的母语是西班牙语,而你的英语知识不多,你可能会对一些英语口语感到困惑。

詹姆斯-亨斯林提供了两个关于这种混淆的有趣的例子。雪佛兰Novas最初在墨西哥的销量很差,因为在西班牙语中No va的意思是 "它不能用";而Perdue鸡被认为有某种怀疑(或更糟),因为该公司的口号是如此鲜嫩的鸡肉需要壮男来制造”,翻译成西班牙语“亲爱的,制造一些鸡肉需要激起男人的情欲”

People who grow up in Europe, Asia, or South America have very different ideas of punctuality.(守時性)/ˌpʌnk.tʃuˈæl.ə.t̬i/ As Daniel Goleman explains, “Five minutes is late but permissible for a business appointment in the U.S.,, but thirty minutes is normal in Arab countries. In England five to fifteen minutes is the ‘correct’ lateness for one invited to dinner; an Italian might come two hours late, an Ethiopian  (埃塞俄比亚人)yiˌiː.θiːˈoʊ.pi.ən /still later, a Japanese not at all, having accepted only to prevent his host’s losing face.”3

在欧洲、亚洲或南美洲长大的人对守时的想法非常不同。
正如丹尼尔-戈尔曼所解释的:"在美国,5分钟的迟到是可以允许的,但是在阿拉伯国家,30分钟是正常的。在英国,五到十五分钟是被邀请参加晚宴的 "正确 "迟到时间;一个意大利人可能会迟到两个小时,一个埃塞俄比亚人可能会更晚,日本人可能根本不会遲到,他接受邀请只是为了不讓邀請人丢脸"。

A different ethnic origin(種族血統) would also mean different tastes in food. Instead of craving a New York Strip steak and french fries, you might crave “raw monkey brains” or “camel’s milk cheese patties cured in dry camel’s dung” and washed down with “warm camel’s blood.”
不同的民族血统也将意味着对食物有的不同口味,你可能会渴望 "生猴子的大脑 "或 "用干骆驼粪便腌制的骆驼奶酪馅饼"然后用 "热骆驼血 "冲洗,而不是纽约牛排和薯条。

Sociologist (社會學家)ˌsoʊ.siˈɑː.lə.dʒɪst / Ian Robertson summed up(總結歸納) the range of global dietary (飲食)ˈdaɪ.ə.ter.i / differences succinctly(簡單說)sə(k)ˈsiNG(k)tlē:“Americans eat oysters but not snails. The French eat snails but not locusts (蝗蟲)ˈloʊ.kəst /.The Zulus(祖魯人) ˈzuː.luː / eat locusts but not fish. The Jews eat fish but not pork. The Hindus(印度教) ˈhɪn.duː / eat pork but not beef. The Russians eat beef but not snakes. The Chinese eat snakes but not people. The Jalé of New Guinea find people delicious.”5 [Note: The reference to Hindus is mistaken.]
To sum up, living in a different age or culture would make you a different person. Even if you rebelled against the values of your time and place, they still would represent the context of your life—in other words, they still would influence your responses.

社会学家Ian Robertson简要地总结了全球饮食差异的范围。
"美国人吃牡蛎,但不吃蜗牛。法国人吃蜗牛,但不吃蝗虫。祖鲁人吃蝗虫,但不吃鱼。犹太人吃鱼,但不吃猪肉。印度教徒吃猪肉,但不吃牛肉。俄罗斯人吃牛肉,但不吃蛇。
中国人吃蛇,但不吃人。新几内亚的Jalé人覺得人很好吃。5 [注:对印度人的提及是错误的]。
总而言之,生活在不同的时代或文化中会使你成为不同的人。即使你反抗你的时代和地方的价值观,他们仍然代表着你的背景。--换句话说,它们仍然会影响你的反应。

Chapter 1- The Influence of Ideas

When one idea is expressed, closely related ideas are simultaneously(同時) ˌsaɪ.m ə lˈteɪ.ni.əs.li / conveyed (表達思想)kənˈveɪ /, logically and inescapably(不可避免)ˌɪn.ɪˈskeɪ.pə.bli /.7 In logic, this kinship(親屬關係) is expressed by the term sequitur(推論)/ˈsek.wɪ.t̬ɚ /, Latin for “it follows.” (The converse is non sequitur, “it does not follow.”)8
当表达一个想法的时候,与之密切相关的想法会同时传达出来,这是合乎逻辑和无法避免的。在逻辑上,这种两个想法之间的亲密关系在术语上的表达叫做“根据前提得出的符合逻辑的推论”,拉丁语叫做“it follows”。(反过来叫做“不合逻辑的推论”,"it does not follow.")

Consider, for example, the idea that many teachers and parents express to young children as a way of encouraging them: “If you believe in yourself, you can succeed at anything.” From this it follows that nothing else but belief—neither talent nor hard work—is necessary for success. The reason the two ideas are equivalent (相等)ɪˈkwɪv. ə l. ə nt / is that their meanings are inseparably (密不可分) ɪnˈsep.rə.bli /linked*
试想一个这样的例子,许多老师和父母都会表达一个观念作为一种鼓励年轻孩子的方法:“如果相信自己能行,那么你做任何事情都会成功。”按照这种理念可以推断出另外一种理念:天赋和努力都不是成功的必备条件,唯有信念才是。以上两个理念等同的原因在于他们的含义是那么地密不可分。

In addition to conveying ideas closely linked to it in meaning, an idea can imply (意味著)other ideas. For example, the idea that there is no real difference between virtue and vice implies that people should not feel bound by common moral(道德) standards. 
Samuel Johnson had this implication (含義)ˌɪm.pləˈkeɪ.ʃ ə n /in mind when he said: “But if he does really think that there is no distinction  (區別)dɪˈstɪŋk.ʃ ə n /between virtue and vice, why, Sir, when he leaves our houses let us count our spoons.” 
除了在意义上传达与之密切相关的观念,也可以暗示其他的观点。例如,有一种观念认为美德与恶习之间不存在真正的差异,这意味着人们无需受到共同道德标准的束缚。当塞缪尔·约翰逊的脑海中闪过这种念头的时候说:“但是如果他真的认为美德和恶习之间没有区别,那么为什么当他离开我们的房子时让我们數湯匙?”

這個部分包含了隱喻因此比較難以理解,“count our spoons ”再查找資料後解釋為“無法信任的意思,出處為

似乎是英國詞典編纂者、作家、評論家和對話家塞繆爾·約翰遜Samuel Johnson,1709-1784 年)創造了這個詞組,因為我發現最早出現的是《塞繆爾·約翰遜的生平》第一卷,LL.D。(倫敦:亨利·鮑德溫為查爾斯·迪利印刷,1791 年),詹姆斯·博斯韋爾(1740-1795 年),蘇格蘭律師、日記作者和塞繆爾·約翰遜的傳記作者:

我向他描述了一個來自蘇格蘭的厚顏無恥的傢伙,他 [……] 堅持認為美德與惡習沒有區別。約翰遜。“為什麼,先生,如果這傢伙說話時不思考,那他就是在撒謊;我看不出他有什麼說謊話的性格能給自己帶來什麼榮譽。但如果他真的認為美德沒有區別,為什麼先生,當他離開我們的房子時,讓我們數一數我們的勺子。”

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) who coined the phrase, as the earliest occurrence that I have found is from the first volume of The life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (London: Printed by Henry Baldwin, for Charles Dilly, 1791), by James Boswell (1740-1795), Scottish lawyer, diarist and biographer of Samuel Johnson:

I described to him an impudent fellow from Scotland, who […] maintained that there was no distinction between virtue and vice. Johnson. “Why, Sir, if the fellow does not think as he speaks, he is lying; and I see not what honour he can propose to himself from having the character of a lyar. But if he does really think that there is no distinction between virtue and vice, why, Sir, when he leaves our houses, let us count our spoons.” 

If we were fully aware of the closely linked meanings and implication (含義)沒有明說的影響ˌɪm.pləˈkeɪ.ʃ ə n / of the ideas we encounter (遇到)ɪnˈkaʊn.t̬ɚ /we could easily sort out the sound ones from the unsound(不健全),the wise from the foolish, and the helpful from the harmful(傷害). But we are seldom(很少) ˈsel.dəm / fully aware.

In many cases, we take ideas at face value and embrace (擁抱)them with little or no thought of their associated (聯繫)əˈsoʊ.si.eɪ.t̬ɪd / meanings and implications.In the course of time, our actions are shaped by those meanings and implications, whether we are aware of them or not.

如果我们能意识到,我们所遇到的想法當中的密切联系,包含意义和影响,我们可以很容易地从不健全的想法中找出健全的想法,从愚蠢的想法中找出明智的想法,从有害的想法中找出有益的想法。但是我们很少能完全意识到。在许多情况下,我们只看表面价值,接受它们,很少或根本没有考虑到它们的相关意义和影响。在时间的推移中,我们的行动被这些意义和影响所左右,无论我们是否意识到它们。

To appreciate(理解) the influence of ideas in people’s lives, consider the series of events set in motion by an idea that was popular in psychology more than a century ago and whose influence continues to this day—the idea that “intelligence (智力)ɪnˈtel.ə.dʒ ə ns / is genetically  (基因)/dʒəˈnet̬.ɪ.kəl.i/determined (決定)dɪˈtɝː.mɪnd / and cannot be increased.” That idea led researchers to devise  (設計)dɪˈvaɪz /tests that measure intelligence. The most famous (badly flawed) test determined that the average mental age of white American adults was 13 and that, among immigrants, the average Russian’s mental age was 11.34; the average Italian’s, 11.01; the average Pole’s, 10.74; and the average mental age of “Negroes,” 10.41.

为了理解思想对人们生活的影响,请看一个世纪前在心理学界流行的、影响至今的思想所引发的一系列事件--"智力是由基因决定的,而且无法提高"。

这种想法影響研究人员所设计的智力测试。其中最著名的(有严重缺陷的)测试确定了美国白人成年人的平均智力年龄为13岁,而在移民人口中,俄罗斯人的平均智力年龄是11.34岁。意大利人的平均智力年龄是11.01岁;波兰人的平均智力年龄是10.74岁。而 "黑人 "的平均心理年龄为10.41岁。

Educators read the text results and thought, “Attempts(試圖) to raise students’ intelligence are pointless,” so they replaced academic curricula(學術課程) with vocational(職業) curricula and embraced a methodology (方法)ˌmeθ.əˈdɑː.lə.dʒi / that taught students facts but not the process of judgment.

教育家们看了文本结果后认为,"试图提高学生的智力是毫无意义的",因此他们用职业课程取代了学术课程,并接受了一种教给学生事实但不教给学生判断过程的方法。 

*The statement “Belief in oneself is an important element in success” is very different because it specifies that belief is not the only element in success. 

*"相信自己是成功的重要因素 "这句话是非常不同的,因为它规定了信念不是成功的唯一因素。

Legislators (立法者)ˈledʒ.ə.sleɪ.t̬ɚ / read the test results and decided “We’ve got to do something to keep intellectually (智力)ˌɪn.t̬ ə lˈek.tʃu.ə.li / inferior (劣等)ɪnˈfɪr.i.ɚ / people from entering the country,” so they revised(修訂)rɪˈvaɪz /immigration laws to discriminate (歧視) /dɪˈskrɪm.ə.neɪt/against southern and central Europeans.

立法者阅读了测试结果,并决定 "我们必须做些什么来阻止智力低下的人进入美国。所以他们修改了移民法,以歧视南欧和中欧人。

Eugenicists(優生學), who had long been concerned about the welfare (福利)ˈwel.fer / of the human species, saw the tests as a grave warning. They thought, “If intelligence cannot be increased, we must find ways of encouraging reproduction among people of higher intelligence and discouraging it among those of lower intelligence.”

The eugenicists’ concern inspired a variety (各種) vəˈraɪ.ə.t̬i /of actions. Margaret Sanger’s Planned Parenthood urged the lower classes to practice contraception(避孕) /ˌkɑːn.trəˈsep.ʃən/.Others succeeded in legalizing (合法化)ˈliː.ɡ ə l.aɪz / promoted forced sterilization(絕育)ˌster.ə.ləˈzeɪ.ʃ ə n /, notably (尤其)ˈnoʊ.t̬ə.bli / in Virginia. 

长期以来一直关注人类福祉的优生学家将这些测试视为一个严重的警告。他们认为,"如果智力不能提高,我们必须找到办法鼓励智力高的人进行繁殖,阻止智力低的人进行繁殖"。

优生学家的担忧激发了各种行动。玛格丽特-桑格(Margaret Sanger)的计划生育协会(Planned Parenthood)敦促下层阶级采取避孕措施。其他人成功地使强制绝育合法化,特别是在弗吉尼亚州。

The U.S. Supreme Court upheld(支持) the Virginia law with Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. declaring, “Three generations of imbeciles (低能兒)/ˈɪm.bə.sɪl/ are enough.”9 Over the next five decades 7,500 women, including “unwed mothers, prostitutes (妓女)ˈprɑː.stə.tuːt /, petty criminals and children with disciplinary problems” were sterilized.10 In addition, by 1950 over 150,000 supposedly “defective” children, many relatively normal, were held against their will in institutions(機構) ˌɪn.stəˈtuː.ʃ ə n /. They “endured(忍受)ɪnˈdʊr / isolation, overcrowding, forced labor, and physical abuse including lobotomy (腦葉切除手術)ləˈbɑː.t̬ə.mi /, electroshock, and surgical sterilizationˌster.ə.ləˈzeɪ.ʃ ə n /.”11 

美国最高法院维持了弗吉尼亚州的法律,小奥利弗-温德尔-霍姆斯(Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.)法官宣称:"三代低能儿已经足够了。"9 在接下来的五十年里,7500名妇女,包括 "未婚母亲、妓女、小罪犯和有纪律问题的儿童 "被绝育。10 此外,到1950年,超过15万名所谓的 "有缺陷 "的儿童,其中许多相对正常,被违背其意愿关押在机构中。他们 "忍受着隔离、过度拥挤、强迫劳动和身体虐待,包括脑白质切除术、电击术和外科绝育术"。

Meanwhile, business leaders read the test results and decided, “We need policies to ensure that workers leave their minds at the factory gate and perform their assigned (被分配)əˈsaɪn / tasks mindlessly.” 

So they enacted (制定)ɪˈnækt / those policies. Decades later, when Edwards Deming proposed his “quality control” ideas for involving (涉及)ɪnˈvɑːlv /workers in decision making, business leaders remembered those test results and ignored Deming’s advice. (In contrast, the Japanese welcomed Deming’s ideas; as a result, several of their industries surged (激增)sɝːdʒ / ahead of their American competition.) 

同时,企业领导人阅读了测试结果,并决定:"我们需要制定政策,确保工人把他们的思想留在工厂门口,无意识地执行他们被分配的任务。" 于是他们颁布了这些政策。几十年后,当爱德华兹-戴明提出他的 "质量控制 "理念,让工人参与决策时,企业领导人记住了这些测试结果,并忽略了戴明的建议。(相比之下,日本人对戴明的想法表示欢迎;因此,他们的一些行业在美国的竞争中突飞猛进。)

These are the most obvious effects of hereditarianism(遺傳學) but they are certainly not the only ones. Others include discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities  (少數民族)/maɪˈnɔːr.ə.t̬i/and the often-paternalistic  (家長式)pəˌtɝː.nəˈlɪs.tɪk /policies of government offered in response. (Some historians(歷史學家) hɪˈstɔːr.i.ən /also link hereditarianism to the genocide  (種族滅亡)/ˈdʒen.ə.saɪd/that occurred(發生)əˈkɝː / in Nazi Germany.)

The innumerable (無數)ɪˈnuː.mɚ.ə.b ə l / ideas you have encountered will affect your beliefs and behavior in similar ways––sometimes slightly, at other times profoundly. And this can happen even if you have not consciously embraced the ideas. 

这些是遗传主义最明显的影响,但它们肯定不是唯一的影响。其他影响包括对少数种族和民族的歧视,以及政府为应对这些歧视而采取的家长式的政策。(一些历史学家还将遗传主义与纳粹德国发生的种族灭绝联系起来。)

你所遇到的无数想法会以类似的方式影响你的信仰和行为--有时是轻微的,有时是深刻的。即使你没有有意识地接受这些想法,也会发生这种情况。

The Influence of Mass Culture

In centuries past, family and teachers were the dominant, and sometimes the only, influence on children. Today, however, the influence exerted  (發揮)ɪɡˈzɝːt /by mass culture (the broadcast media, newspapers, magazines, Internet and popular music) often is greater.

By age 18 the average teenager has spent 11,000 hours in the classroom and 22,000 hours in front of the television set. He or she has had perhaps 13,000 school lessons yet has watched more than 750,000 commercials. By age thirty-five the same person has had fewer than 20,000 school lessons yet has watched approximately  (大約)/əˈprɑːk.sə.mət.li/45,000 hours of television and close to 2 million commercials. 

在過去的幾個世紀裡,家庭和教師是對孩子主要的,甚至是唯一的影響源。但是在今天,大眾文化(廣播媒體,報紙,雜誌,和流行音樂)的影響力往往更大。到18岁时,青少年平均已经在教室里呆了11000小时,在电视机前呆了22000小时。他或她可能有13,000节学校课程,但却看了超过750,000个商业广告。到了35岁,同样的人只上了不到2万节课,却看了大约4.5万小时的电视和近200万个广告。

What effects does mass culture have on us? To answer, we need only consider the formats and devices commonly  (通常)ˈkɑː.mən.li /used in the media. Modern advertising typically bombards (轟擊)/bɑːmˈbɑːrd/the public with slogans and testimonials (推薦)ˌtes.təˈmoʊ.ni.əl / by celebrities. This approach is designed to appeal to emotions and create artificial needs for products and services. As a result, many people develop the habit of responding emotionally, impulsively, and gullibly (容易上當)ˈɡʌl.ə.b ə l / to such appeals. They also tend to(傾向) acquire values very different from those taught in the home and the school. Ads often portray(描繪)pɔːrˈtreɪ / play as more fulfilling than work, self-gratification (自我滿足)ˌɡræt̬.ə.fəˈkeɪ.ʃ ə n / as more desirable than self-control, and materialism(物質主義) məˈtɪr.i.ə.lɪ.z ə m / as more meaningful than idealism. 

大众文化对我们有什么影响?要回答这个问题,我们只需考虑媒体中常用的格式和手段。现代广告通常用口号和名人的证词来轰炸公众。这种方法旨在吸引人们的情感,并创造对产品和服务的人为需求。

结果,许多人养成了对这种方法作出情绪化、冲动和轻信的反应的习惯。他们也倾向于获得与家庭和学校教育非常不同的价值观。广告常常把玩耍描绘成比工作更有成就感,把自我满足描绘成比自我控制更可取,把物质主义描绘成比理想主义更有意义。

Television programmers use frequent (頻繁)ˈfriː.kw ə nt /scene shifts and sensory appeals such as car crashes, violence, and sexual encounters(遇到的情況) to keep audience interest from diminishing(減少)dɪˈmɪn.ɪʃ /. Then they add frequent commercial interruptions. 

电视节目主持人利用频繁的场景转换和感官刺激,如车祸、暴力和性爱,以保持观众的兴趣不减。然后,他们再加上频繁的商业中断。

This author has analyzed the attention shifts that television viewers are subjected to. In a dramatic program, for example, attention shifts might include camera angle changes;* shifts in story line from one set of characters (or subplot子劇情ˈsʌb.plɑːt /) to another, or from a present scene to a past scene (flashback), or to fantasy; and shifts to “newsbreaks,” to commercial breaks, from one commercial to another, and back to the program. Also included might be shifts of attention that occur (發生)əˈkɝː / within commercials. 

这位作者分析了电视观众所受到的注意力转移。例如,在一个戏剧性的节目中,注意力的转移可能包括摄像机角度的变化;*故事线从一组人物(或分镜头)转移到另一组人物,或从现在的场景转移到过去的场景(闪回),或转移到幻想中;以及转移到 "新闻中断",转移到商业中断,从一个商业转移到另一个,再回到节目中。此外,还可能包括在广告中发生的注意力的转移。

I found as many as 78 shifts per hour, excluding the shifts within commercials. The number of shifts within commercials ranged from 6 to 54 and averaged approximately  大約əˈprɑːk.sə.mət.li /17 per fifteen-second commercial. The total number of attention shifts came out to over 800 per hour, or over 14 per minute.† 

我发现每小时有多达78个转换,不包括广告中的转换。广告中的转换次数从6到54不等,平均每15秒的广告中约有17次。注意力转移的总数超过每小时800次,或每分钟超过14次

This manipulation has prevented many people from developing a mature attention span. They expect the classroom and the workplace to provide the same constant excitement they get from television. That, of course, is an impossible demand, and when it isn’t met they call their teachers boring and their work unfulfilling. Because such people seldom have the patience to read books that require them to think, many publishers have replaced serious books with light fare written by celebrities.

这种操纵方式使许多人无法形成成熟的注意力。他们期望课堂和工作场所能够提供与他们从电视中获得的相同的持续兴奋。当然,这是一个不可能的要求,当这个要求没有得到满足时,他们就说老师很无聊,工作不充实。因为这些人很少有耐心阅读需要他们思考的书籍,所以许多出版商用名人写的轻松读物取代严肃的书籍。

Even when writers of serious books do manage to become published authors, they are often directed to give short, dramatic answers during promotional interviews, sometimes at the expense of accuracy (準確性)ˈæk.jɚ.ə.si /. A man who coaches writers for talk shows offered one client this advice: “If I ask you whether the budget deficit (赤字)ˈdef.ə.sɪt / is a good thing or a bad thing, you should not say, ‘Well, it stimulates  (刺激)ˈstɪm.jə.leɪt /the economy but it passes on a burden.’ You have to say ‘It’s a great idea!’ or ‘It’s a terrible idea!’ It doesn’t matter which.”12 (Translation: ”Don’t give a balanced answer. Give an oversimplified one because it will get you noticed.”)

當严肃书籍的作者出版作品時,他们在宣传采访中也经常被要求作出简短、戏剧性的回答,有时甚至牺牲了准确性。一位指导作家参加谈话节目的人给一位客户提供了这样的建议。"如果我问你预算赤字是好事还是坏事,你不应该说,'嗯,它刺激了经济,但它转嫁了一个负担'。你必须说'这是一个伟大的想法!'或者'这是一个可怕的想法!' 哪一个都无所谓。"12(译者注:"不要给出平衡的答案。给一个过于简化的答案,因为它会让你受到关注。")

Print journalism is also in the grip of sensationalism(駭人聽聞). As a newspaper editor observed, “Journalists keep trying to find people who are at 1 or at 9 on a scale of 1 to 10 rather than people at 3 to 7 [the more moderate(緩和) positions] where most people actually are.”13 Another journalist claims, “News is now becoming more opinion than verified(證實) fact. Journalists are slipping into entertainment rather than telling us the verified facts we need to know.”14

印刷新闻也被煽情主义所控制。正如一位报纸编辑所观察到的,"记者们一直在努力寻找那些在1到10分中处于1或9分的人,而不是大多数人实际处于3到7分[比较温和的位置]的人。"13 另一位记者称,"新闻现在变得更多的是意见而不是经过验证的事实。记者们正在滑向娱乐,而不是告诉我们需要了解的经过核实的事实。"14

Today’s politicians often manipulate people more offensively than do journalists. Instead of expressing their thoughts, some politicians find out what people think and pretend to share their ideas. Many politicians hire people to conduct polls and focus groups to learn what messages will “sell.” They even go so far as to test the impact of certain words—that is why we hear so much about “trust,” “family,” “character,” and “values” these days.

今天的政客们常常比记者们更有攻击性地操纵人们。一些政客不表达自己的想法,而是找出人们的想法,假装与他们的想法一致。许多政客雇人进行民意调查和焦点小组,以了解什么信息会 "畅销"。他们甚至不惜测试某些词语的影响--这就是为什么我们这些天听到这么多关于 "信任"、"家庭"、"性格 "和 "价值观 "的说法。

Political (政治)pəˈlɪt̬.ə.k ə l / science professor Larry Sabato says that during the Clinton impeachment(彈劾) trial, the president’s advisors used the term (一個單詞或表達中使用關係到一個特定的 主題,經常描述一些官方技術 private lives over and over—James Carville used it six times in one four-minute speech—because they knew it could persuade people into believing the president’s lying under oath was of no great consequence.15

政治学教授拉里-萨巴托(Larry Sabato)说,在克林顿的弹劾审判中,总统的顾问们反复使用私人生活一词--詹姆斯-卡维尔在一次四分钟的演讲中使用了六次--因为他们知道这可以说服人们相信总统在宣誓后撒谎并没有什么大的影响。

The “Science” of Manipulation

Attempts to influence the thoughts and actions of others are no doubt as old as time, but manipulation did not become a science until the early twentieth century, when Ivan Pavlov, a Russian professor of psychology, published his research on conditioned (learned) reflexes. Pavlov found that by ringing a bell when he fed a dog, he could condition the dog to drool at the sound of the bell even when no food was presented. An American psychologist, John Watson, was impressed with Pavlov’s findings and applied them to human behavior.  

操纵的 "科学"
毫無疑問,试图影响他人的思想和行动自古以來就有,但操纵直到二十世纪初才成为一门科学研究。当时俄国心理学教授伊万-巴甫洛夫发表了他对条件反射(後天習得)的研究。巴甫洛夫发现,通过在喂狗时摇铃,他可以使狗在听到铃声时流口水,即使没有食物給他。一位美国心理学家约翰-华生对巴甫洛夫的研究结果印象深刻,并将其应用于人类行为。

In Watson’s most famous experiment, he let a baby touch a laboratory (實驗室) ˈlæb.rə.tɔːr.i /rat. At first, the baby was unafraid. But then Watson hit a hammer against metal whenever the baby reached out to touch the rat, and the baby became frightened and cried. In time, the baby cried not only at the sight of the rat but also at the sight of anything furry, such as a stuffed animal.* Watson’s work earned him the title “father of behaviorism.” 

在华生最著名的实验中,他让一个婴儿触摸实验室的老鼠。起初,这个婴儿并不害怕。但后来,每当婴儿伸手去摸老鼠时,华生就用锤子敲打金属,婴儿就会受到惊吓并哭起来。随着时间的推移,婴儿不仅在看到老鼠时哭,而且在看到任何毛茸茸的东西,如毛绒玩具时也哭。

华生的實驗为他赢得了 "行为主义之父 "的称号。

Less well known is Watson’s application of behaviorist principles to advertising. 

He spent the latter part of his career working for advertising agencies and soon recognized that the most effective appeal to consumers was not to the mind but to the emotions. 

He advised advertisers to “tell [the consumer] something that will tie him up with fear, something that will stir up a mild rage, that will call out an affectionate or love response, or strike at a deep psychological  ˌsaɪ.kəˈlɑː.dʒɪ.k ə l /or habit need.

鲜为人知的是华生将行为主义原则应用于广告。他在职业生涯的后半段为广告公司工作,并很快认识到,对消费者最有效的吸引不是针对头脑,而是针对情感。他建议广告商 "告诉[消费者]一些能让他感到恐惧的东西,一些能激起轻微愤怒的东西,一些能唤起感情或爱的反应的东西,或者打击深层心理或习惯需求的东西。

Watson introduced these strategies in the 1920s and 1930s, the age of newspapers and radio. Since the advent of television, these advertising strategies have grown more sophisticated and effective, so much so that many individuals and groups with political and social agendas have adopted them. The strategies work for a number of reasons, the chief one being people’s conviction that they are impervious to manipulation. This belief is mistaken, as many researchers have demonstrated.

沃森在20世纪20年代和30年代,即报纸和广播的时代引入了这些策略。自从电视问世以来,这些广告策略变得更加复杂和有效,以至于许多有政治和社会议程的个人和团体都采用了这些策略。这些策略之所以奏效,有很多原因,其中最主要的原因是人们相信他们不受操纵的影响。这种信念是错误的,许多研究人员已经证明了这一点。

For example, Solomon Asch showed that people’s reactions can be altered( 改變)simply by changing the order of words in a series. He asked study participants(參加者) to evaluate a person by a series of adjectives. When he put positive adjectives first—”intelligent, industrious(勤奮), impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious”— the participants gave a positive evaluation. When he reversed the order, with “envious” coming first and “intelligent” last, they gave a negative evaluation.17

例如,所罗门-阿什(Solomon Asch)表明,仅仅通过改变一系列词语的顺序就可以改变人们的反应。他要求研究人员通过一系列的形容词来评价一个人。当他把正面的形容词放在第一位--"聪明、勤奋、冲动、挑剔、固执、嫉妒"--参与者给出了正面的评价。当他把顺序颠倒过来,把 "嫉妒 "放在前面,把 "聪明 "放在最后,他们就给出了负面评价。

Similarly, research has shown that human memory can be manipu-lated. The way a question is asked can change the details in a person’s memory and even make a person remember something that never happened!18
Of course, advertisers and people with political or social agendas are not content to stimulate emotions and/or plant ideas in our minds. They also seek to reinforce those impressions by repeating them again and again. The more people hear a slogan or talking point, the more familiar it becomes. 

同样,研究表明,人类的记忆是可以被操纵的。問问题的方式可以改变一个人记忆中的细节,甚至让一个人记住从未发生过的事情!18
当然,广告商和有政治或社会议程的人并不满足于刺激情绪和/或在我们脑海中植入想法。他们还试图通过一次又一次地重复这些,来强化这些印象。人们听到的口号或话题越多,它就越熟悉。

Before long, it becomes indistinguishable 無差別/ˌɪn.dɪˈstɪŋ.ɡwɪ.ʃə.bəl/ from ideas developed through careful thought. Sadly, “the packaging is often done so effectively that the viewer, listener, or reader does not make up his own mind at all.  

不久之后,它就变得与通过仔细思考形成的想法没有区别了。可悲的是,"这种包装往往做得如此有效,以至于观众、听众或读者根本没有自己的想法。

Instead, he inserts  (插入)/ɪnˈsɝːt/a packaged opinion into his mind, somewhat有些 like inserting a DVD into a DVD player. He then pushes a button and ‘plays back’ the opinion whenever it seems appropriate to do so. He has performed acceptably without having had to think.”19 Many of the beliefs we hold dearest and defend most vigorously/ˈvɪɡ.ɚ.əs.li/ may have been planted in our minds in just this way. 

相反,他把包装好的意见插入他的头脑,有点像把DVD插入DVD播放器。然后,他按下一个按钮,只要觉得合适就会'回放'这个观点。他不用思考就已经有了可接受的表现。许多我们最珍视、最极力捍卫的信念可能就是以这种方式植入我们的头脑中的。

Many years ago, Harry A. Overstreet noted that “a climate (氣候)of opinion, like a physical climate, is so pervasive(普及) a thing that those who live within it and know no other take it for granted.”20 The rise of mass culture and the sophisticated use of manipulation have made this insight more relevant today than ever.

多年前,Harry A. Overstreet指出,"舆论氛围就像物理气候一样,是如此普遍廣泛,以至于那些生活在其中,而不了解其他事物的人认为这是理所当然的。"20 大众文化的兴起和对操纵的复杂使用,使得洞察力在今天比以往任何时候都更有意义。

Influence of Psychology

The social and psychological theories of our time also have an impact on our beliefs. Before the past few decades, people were urged to be self- disciplined, self-critical, and self-effacing. They were urged to practice self- denial, to aspire to self-knowledge, to behave in a manner that ensured they maintained self-respect. Self-centeredness was considered a vice.

心理学的影响

我们这个时代的社会和心理学理论也对我们的信仰产生了影响。在过去几十年前,人们被敦促要自我约束、自我批评和自我谦让。他们被敦促进行自我否定,渴望自我了解,以确保他们保持自尊的方式行事。以自我为中心被认为是一种恶习。

“Hard work,” they were told, “leads to achievement, and that in turn produces satisfaction and self-confidence.” By and large, our grandparents internalized those teachings. When they honored them in their behavior, they felt proud; when they dishonored them, they felt ashamed.

他们被告知 "努力工作","导致成就,这反过来又会产生满足感和自信心"。总的来说,我们的祖父母将这些教诲内化了。当他们在行为上尊重这些教诲时,他们感到自豪;当他们不尊重这些教诲时,他们感到羞愧。

Today the theories have been changed—indeed, almost exactly reversed. Self-esteem, which nineteenth-century satirist(諷刺作家) Ambrose Bierce defined as “an erroneous appraisement,”錯誤的評估 is now considered an imperative(勢在必行). Self-centeredness has been transformed from vice into virtue, and people who devote their lives to helping others, people once considered heroic and saintlike, are now said to be afflicted with “a disease to please.” 

今天,这些理论已经发生了变化--事实上,几乎完全颠倒了。十九世纪的讽刺作家安布罗斯-比尔斯(Ambrose Bierce)将自我为中心定义为 "一种错误的评价",现在则被认为是一种必要条件。以自我为中心已经从恶习变成了美德,而那些致力于帮助他人的人,那些曾经被认为是英雄和圣人的人,现在被说成是患了 "取悦的疾病"。

The formula for success and happiness begins with feeling good about ourselves. Students who do poorly in school, workers who don’t measure up to the challenges of their jobs, substance abusers, lawbreakers—all are typically diagnosed as deficient in self-esteem. 

成功和幸福的公式始于对自己的良好感觉。在学校表现不佳的学生、无法应对工作挑战的工人、药物滥用者、违法者--所有这些人通常被诊断为缺乏自尊。

In addition, just as our grandparents internalized the social and psychological theories of their time, so most contemporary Americans have internalized the message of self-esteem. We hear people speak of it over coffee; we hear it endlessly invoked on talk shows. Challenges to its precepts are usually met with disapproval. 

此外,正如我们的祖父母将他们那个时代的社会和心理学理论内化一样,大多数当代美国人也将自尊的信息内化。我们听到人们在喝咖啡时谈论它;我们听到它在脱口秀节目中被无休止地引用。对其戒律的挑战通常会得到不认可的回应。

But isn’t the theory of self-esteem self-evident? No. A negative perception of our abilities will, of course, handicap our performance. Dr. Maxwell Maltz explains the amazing results one educator had in improving the grades of schoolchildren by changing their self-images. The educator had observed that when the children saw themselves as stupid in a particular subject (or stupid in general), they unconsciously acted to confirm their self-images. They believed they were stupid, so they acted that way.

但自尊的理论不是不言而喻的吗?不,对我们能力的负面看法,当然会阻碍我们的表现。麦克斯韦-马尔兹博士解释说,一位教育家在提高学童的成績後,而改變了学童的自我形象,這改變取得了惊人的效果。这位教育家观察到,当孩子们认为自己在某一科目上很笨(或各學科都不好)时,他们会潛意識的采取行动来确认他们的自我形象。他们相信自己是愚蠢的,所以他们的行为也是如此。

Reasoning that it was their defeatist attitude rather than any lack of ability that was undermining their efforts, the educator set out to change their self-images. He found that when he accomplished that, they no longer behaved stupidly! Maltz concludes from this and other examples that our experiences can work a kind of self-hypnotism on us, suggesting a conclusion about ourselves and then urging us to make it come true.21 

这位教育家认为是他们的失败主义态度,而不是任何能力的缺乏破坏了他们的努力,因此着手改变他们的自我形象。他发现,当他做到这一点时,他们就不再有愚蠢的行为了。马尔兹从这个例子和其他例子中得出结论,我们的经历可以对我们产生一种自我催眠作用,暗示我们对自己的结论,然后敦促我们使之成为现实。

Many proponents of self-esteem went far beyond Maltz’s demonstration that self-confidence is an important ingredient in success. They claimed that there is no such thing as too much self-esteem. 

Research does not support that claim. For example, Martin Seligman, an eminent research psychologist and founder of the movement known as positive psychology, cites significant evidence that, rather than solving personal and social problems, including depression, the modern emphasis on self- esteem causes them.

许多自尊的支持者做出了更多的远远超出了马尔兹實驗的证明,說明自信是成功的一个重要因素。他们声称,不存在过多的自尊这回事。
研究并不支持这种说法。例如,马丁-塞利格曼(Martin Seligman),一位杰出的研究型心理学家和被称为积极心理学的运动的创始人,引用了重要的证据表明,现代人对自尊的重視沒有解决个人和社会问题,包括抑郁症,而是导致这些问题。

Maltz’s research documents that lack of confidence impedes performance, a valuable insight. But such research doesn’t explain why the more global concept of self-esteem has become so dominant. The answer to that question lies in the popularization of the work of humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow. Maslow described what he called the hierarchy /ˈhaɪ.rɑːr.ki/ of human needs in the form of a pyramid /ˈpɪr.ə.mɪd/, with physiological needs (food and drink) at the foundation. 

马尔兹的研究记录了缺乏自信会阻碍表现,这是一个有价值的觀點。但这样的研究并不能解释为什么自尊概念会成為主流。这个问题的答案,在于亚伯拉罕-马斯洛等人本主义心理学家的工作的普及。马斯洛以金字塔的形式描述了他所谓的人类需求层次,其中生理需求(食物和饮料)是基础。

Above them, in ascending order, are safety needs, the need for belongingness and love, the need for esteem and approval, and aesthetic and cognitive needs (knowledge, understanding, etc.). At the pinnacle is the need for self-actualization, or fulfillment of our potential. In Maslow’s view, the lower needs must be fulfilled before the higher ones. It’s easy to see how the idea that self- esteem must precede achievement was derived from Maslow’s theory.

在它们之上,依次是安全需要、归属感和爱的需要、自尊和认可的需要,以及审美和认知的需要(知识、理解等)。处于顶峰的是自我实现的需要,或者说是对我们潜力的满足。在马斯洛看来,低级需求必须在高级需求之前得到满足。很容易看出,自尊必须先于成就的观点是如何从马斯洛的理论中衍生出来的。

Other theories might have been adopted, however. A notable one is Austrian psychiatrist  /saɪˈkaɪə.trɪst/ Viktor Frankl’s, which was advanced at roughly the same time as Maslow’s and was based on both Frankl’s professional practice and his experiences in Hitler’s concentration camps.  Frankl argues that one human need is higher than self-actualization: self-transcendence, the need to rise above narrow absorption with self. 

然而,其他理论也可能被采纳。一个值得注意的是奥地利精神病学家维克多-弗兰克尔(Viktor Frankl)的理论,该理论与马斯洛的理论差不多同时提出,并基于弗兰克尔的专业实践和他在希特勒集中营的经历。 弗兰克尔认为,有一种人类需求比自我实现更高:自我超越,需要超越对自我的狭隘吸收。

According to Frankl, “the primordial anthropological fact [is] that being human is being always directed, and pointing to something or someone other than oneself: to a meaning to fulfill or another human being to encounter, a cause to serve or a person to love.
” A person becomes fully human “by forgetting himself and giving himself, overlooking himself and focusing outward.”

按照弗兰克尔的说法,"人类学的基本事实[是],作为人类总是被引导,并指向自己以外的东西或人:指向一个要实现的意义或要遇到的另一个人,一个要服务的事业或一个要爱的人。
" 一个人成为完全的人,"通过忘记自己和奉献自己,俯瞰自己和关注外部"。

Making self-actualization (or happiness) the direct object of our pursuit, in Frankl’s view, is ultimately self-defeating; such fulfillment can occur only as “the unintended effect of self-transcendence.” The proper perspective on life, Frankl believes, is not what it can give to us, but what it expects from us; life is daily—even hourly—questioning us, challenging us to accept “the responsibility to find the right answer to its problems and to fulfill the tasks which it constantly sets for [each of us].”

在弗兰克尔看来,将自我实现(或幸福)作为我们追求的直接目标,最终是自取灭亡;这种实现只能作为 "自我超越的意外效果 "而发生。弗兰克尔认为,对生活的正确看法不是它能给我们什么,而是它对我们的期望;生活每天--甚至每小时--都在询问我们,挑战我们接受 "为它的问题找到正确答案的责任,完成它不断为[我们每个人]设定的任务"。

Finding meaning, according to Frankl’s theory, involves “perceiving a possibility embedded in reality” and searching for challenging tasks “whose completion might add meaning to [one’s] existence.”

根据弗兰克尔的理论,寻找意义包括 "感知现实中的一种可能性",并寻找具有挑战性的任务,"完成这些任务可能会给[一个人]的存在增加意义"。

But such perceiving and searching are frustrated by the focus on self: “As long as modern literature confines itself to, and contents itself with, self-expression—not to say self-exhibition—it reflects its authors’ sense of futility and absurdity. What is more important, it also creates absurdity. This is understandable in
light of the fact that meaning must be discovered, it cannot be invented. Sense cannot be created, but what may well be created is nonsense.

但这样的感知和寻找却因对自我的关注而受挫。"只要现代文学把自己限制在自我表达上,并以自我展示为内容,它就反映了其作者的徒劳感和荒谬感。更重要的是,它还创造了荒诞性。这一点是可以理解的,因为考虑到意义必须被发现,它不能被发明。意义不能被创造,但很可能被创造的是无稽之谈。

whether we agree completely with Frankl, one thing is clear: Contemporary American culture would be markedly different if the emphasis over the past several decades had been on Frankl’s theory rather than on the theories of Maslow and the other humanistic psychologists. All of us would have been affected—we can only imagine how profoundly—in our attitudes, values, and beliefs.

无论我们是否完全同意弗兰克尔的观点,有一点是明确的:如果在过去的几十年里,重点放在弗兰克尔的理论上,而不是放在马斯洛和其他人本主义心理学家的理论上,当代美国文化将会有明显的不同。我们所有人都会受到影响--我们只能想象我们的态度、价值观和信仰会受到多么深刻的影响。

Becoming an Individual

In light of what we have discussed, we should regard individuality not as something we are born with but rather as something acquired—or, more precisely, earned. Individuality begins in the realization that it is impossible to escape being influenced by other people and by circumstance.  

根据我们所讨论的内容,我们不应该把个性看作是我们与生俱来的东西,而应该看作是获得的东西,或者更确切地说,是赢得的东西。个性开始于这样的认识:我们不可能逃脱被他人和环境所影响的命运。

The essence of individuality is vigilance. The following guidelines will help you achieve this:

1. Treat your first reaction to any person, issue, or situation as tentative. No matter how appealing it may be, refuse to embrace it until you have examined it.

2. Decide why you reacted as you did. Consider whether you borrowed the reaction from someone else—a parent or friend, perhaps, or a celebrity or fictional character on television. If possible, determine what specific experiences conditioned you to react this way.

3. Think of other possible reactions you might have had to the person, issue, or situation.

4. Ask yourself whether one of the other reactions is more appropriate than your first reaction. And when you answer, resist the influence of your conditioning.

个性的本质是警惕性。以下准则将帮助你实现这一目标。

1. 把你对任何个人、问题或情况的第一反应看作是试探性的。无论它多么吸引人,在你审查之前,先不要接受它。

2.决定你为什么有这样的反应。考虑你的反应是否来自其他人--也许是父母或朋友,或者是名人或电视上的虚构人物。如果可能的话,确定是什么具体的经历使你产生了这种反应。

3. 想一想你对这个人、这个问题或这个情况可能有的其他反应。

4. 问问自己,其他反应之一是否比你的第一反应更合适。当你回答时,抵制你的条件反射的影响。

5. Watch one of the music video channels—MTV,VH1,CMT,BET—for at least an hour. Analyze how men and women are depicted in the videos. Note significant details. For example, observe whether men are depicted in power roles more than women and whether women are portrayed as objects of male desire. Decide what attitudes and values are conveyed. (You might want to record as you are watching so that you can review what you have seen, freeze significant frames for closer analysis, and keep your observations for later reference or class viewing and discussion.)

5.观看一个音乐视频频道--MTV、VH1、CMT、BET--至少一个小时。分析视频中对男性和女性的描述。注意重要的细节。例如,观察男性是否比女性更多地被描述为权力角色,女性是否被描述为男性欲望的对象。决定传达的是什么态度和价值观。(你可能想在观看时记录下来,这样你就可以回顾你所看到的,冻结重要的帧以进行更仔细的分析,并保留你的观察,供以后参考或在课堂上观看和讨论。)

6. Suppose you asked a friend,“How did you acquire your particular identity—your sentiments and preferences and attitudes?” Then suppose the friend responded, “I’m an individual. No one else influences me. I do my own thing, and I select the sentiments and preferences and attitudes that suit me.” How would you explain to your friend what you learned in this chapter?

6. 假设你问一个朋友,"你是如何获得你的特殊身份的--你的情感、偏好和态度?" 然后假设这位朋友回答说:"我是一个人。没有人影响我。我做我自己的事,我选择适合我的情感、偏好和态度。" 你将如何向你的朋友解释你在本章中所学到的东西?

7. Ask your self the question, Who am I?Write down ten answers to this question, each on a separate slip of paper. Use the first three paragraphs of this chapter to help you frame your answers. Arrange the pieces of paper in order of their importance to you. Then explain the arrangement—that is, which self- descriptions are most important to you, and why?

7. 问自己一个问题,我是谁?写下这个问题的十个答案,每个答案都写在一张纸上。使用本章的前三段来帮助你确定你的答案。按照这些纸片对你的重要性来排列。然后解释这种安排--也就是说,哪些自我描述对你来说是最重要的,为什么?

8. Identify the various positive and negative influences that have shaped you. Be sure to include the particular as well as the general and the subtle as well as the obvious influences. Which of those influences have had the greatest effect on you? Explain the effects as precisely as you can.

8. 识别塑造你的各种积极和消极影响。一定要包括特殊的和一般的、微妙的和明显的影响。这些影响中哪些对你的影响最大?尽可能准确地解释这些影响。

9. Note your immediate reaction to each of the following statements.Then apply the four guidelines given in this chapter for achieving individuality.

Health care workers should be required to be tested for HIV/AIDS.

Beauty contests and talent competitions for children should be banned.

Extremist groups like the Ku Klux Klan should be allowed to hold rallies

on public property or be issued permits to hold parades on city streets.

Freshman composition should be a required course for all students.

High school and college athletes should be tested for an anabolic steroid use.

Creationism should be taught in high school biology classes.

Polygamy should be legalized.

The voting age should be lowered to sixteen.

The prison system should give greater emphasis to the punishment of in-

mates than to their rehabilitation.

Doctors and clinics should be required to notify parents of minors when

they prescribe birth control devices or facilitate abortions for the minors.

Aman’s self-esteem is severely injured if his wife makes more money than he makes.

Women like being dependent on men.

10. Group discussion exercise: Discuss several of the statements in application 9 with two or three of your classmates, applying the four guidelines presented in this chapter for developing individuality. Be prepared to share your group’s ideas with the class.

. 注意你对以下每项陈述的直接反应。然后运用本章给出的四项准则来实现个性。

应该要求医护人员接受艾滋病毒/艾滋病检测。

应该禁止儿童的选美比赛和才艺比赛。

像三K党这样的极端主义团体应该被允许在公共场所举行集会,或被允许在公共场所举行集会。

在公共场所举行集会,或获得在城市街道上举行游行的许可。

新生作文应该是所有学生的必修课。

高中和大学的运动员应该接受合成类固醇的测试。

在高中生物课上应该讲授创造论。

一夫多妻制应该合法化。

投票年龄应降低到16岁。

监狱系统应该更加重视对犯人的惩罚而不是改造。

同伴的惩罚,而不是对他们的改造。

应要求医生和诊所在开具节育器或为未成年人提供便利时,通知他们的父母。

他们为未成年人开具节育器或帮助他们堕胎。

如果妻子赚的钱比他多,Aman的自尊心就会受到严重的伤害。

比他赚得多,他的自尊就会受到伤害。

女人喜欢依附于男人。

10. 10. 小组讨论练习。与你的两三个同学讨论应用9中的几个陈述,应用本章提出的四条准则来发展个性。准备好与全班分享你们小组的想法。

A Difference of Opinion

The following passage summarizes an important difference of opinion. After reading the statement, use the library and/or the Internet and find what knowledgeable people have said about the issue. Be sure to cover the entire range of views. Then assess the strengths and weaknesses of each. If you conclude that one view is entirely correct and the others are mistaken, explain how you reached that conclusion. If, as is more likely, you find that one view is more insightful than the others but that they all make some valid points, construct a view of your own that combines insights from all views and explain why that view is the most reasonable of all. Present your response in a composition or an oral report, as your instructor specifies. 


观点的分歧

下面这段话总结了一个重要的意见分歧。读完这段话后,利用图书馆和/或互联网,查找有识之士对该问题的看法。要确保涵盖整个的观点。然后评估每种观点的优点和缺点。如果你的结论是一种观点完全正确,而其他观点是错误的,请解释你是如何得出这一结论的。如果更有可能的是,你发现一种观点比其他观点更有见地,但他们都提出了一些有效的观点,那么就构建一个你自己的观点,将其与其他观点相结合。
构建一个你自己的观点,结合所有观点的洞察力,并解释为什么这个观点是最合理的。按照老师的要求,以作文或口头报告的形式展示你的回答。

Should captured terrorists be tried in military or criminal courts? When the United States decided to use the military base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to detain individuals captured on the battlefield in the Iraq war, many people protested the decision. Some argued that captured individuals should be considered criminals rather than prisoners of war and accorded the rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution to all people accused of crimes. 
被俘的恐怖分子应该在军事法庭还是刑事法庭受审?当美国决定使用古巴关塔那摩湾的军事基地来关押在伊拉克战争中在战场上被俘的人时,许多人对这一决定表示抗议。一些人认为,被俘人员应被视为罪犯,而不是战俘,并给予所有被指控犯罪的人以美国宪法所保障的权利。

Others argued for classifying the individuals as prisoners of war and treating them as specified in the Geneva Conventions of 1949. Supporters of the government’s decision reject both arguments, contending that captured terrorists are neither criminals nor soldiers but “unlawful combatants,” adding that any other designation would impose burdens on the United States that would make it difficult to fight terrorism and thereby threaten national security.
其他人则主张将这些人列为战俘,并按照1949年《日内瓦公约》的规定对待他们。政府决定的支持者拒绝了这两种论点,认为被俘的恐怖分子既不是罪犯也不是士兵,而是 "非法战斗人员",并补充说,任何其他指定都会给美国带来负担,使其难以打击恐怖主义,从而威胁到国家安全。

Begin your analysis by conducting a Google search using the term “status captured terrorists.”
开始你的分析,使用 "被抓获的恐怖分子身份 "一词在谷歌上进行搜索。

When Arthur was in the first grade, the teacher directed the class to “think.” “Now, class,” she said, “I know this problem is a little harder than the ones we’ve been doing, but I’m going to give you a few extra minutes to think about it. Now start thinking.”
It was not the first time Arthur had heard the word used. He’d heard it many times at home, but never quite this way. The teacher seemed to be asking for some special activity, something he should know how to start and stop—like his father’s car. “Vroom-m-m,” he muttered half aloud.

阿瑟上一年级的时候,老师指导全班同学 "思考"。"现在,同学们,"她说,"我知道这个问题比我们做的那些问题要难一点,但我要给你们额外的几分钟时间来思考它。现在开始思考。"
这并不是亚瑟第一次听到这个词的使用。他在家里听到过很多次,但从来没有这样过。老师似乎在要求进行一些特殊的活动,他应该知道如何启动和停止的东西,就像他父亲的汽车。"Vroom-m-m,"他半响才喃喃地说。

Because of his confusion, he was unaware he was making the noise.
“Arthur, please stop making noises and start thinking.”
Embarrassed and not knowing quite what to do, he looked down at his desk. Then, out of the corner of his eye, he noticed that the little girl next to him was staring at the ceiling. “Maybe that’s the way you start thinking,” he guessed. 
由于他的困惑,他没有意识到自己在制造噪音。
"阿瑟,请不要再制造噪音,开始思考。"
他很尴尬,也不知道该怎么做,他低头看了看自己的桌子。然后,从眼角的余光中,他注意到他旁边的小女孩正盯着天花板。"也许这就是你开始思考的方式,"他猜测道。

o Arthur learned to feel somewhat guilty about the whole matter. Obviously, this thinking was an important activity that he’d failed to learn. Maybe he lacked the brain power. But he was resourceful enough. He watched the other students and did what they did. Whenever a teacher started in about thinking, he screwed up his face, furrowed his brow, scratched his head, stroked his chin, stared off into space or up at the ceiling, and repeated silently to himself, “Let’s see now, I’ve got to think about that, think, think—I hope he doesn’t call on me—think.”

Though Arthur didn’t know it, that’s just what the other students were saying to themselves.Your experience may have been similar to Arthur’s. In other words, many people may have simply told you to think without ever explaining what thinking is and what qualities a good thinker has that a poor thinker lacks. If that is the case, you have a lot of company. Extensive, effective training in thinking is the exception rather than the rule. This fact and its unfortunate consequences are suggested by the following comments from accomplished observers of the human condition:

因此,阿瑟学会了对整个事情感到有些愧疚。显然,这种思考是他没能学会的一项重要活动。也许他缺乏大脑的力量。但他足够机智。他观察着其他学生,做他们所做的事。每当老师开始讲思考的时候,他就拧起脸来,皱起眉头,挠挠头,摸摸下巴,盯着太空或天花板,默默地对自己重复说:"现在看看,我得想想这个,想想,想想,我希望他不要叫我,想想。"

虽然亚瑟不知道,但这正是其他学生对自己说的话。你的经历可能与亚瑟类似。换句话说,许多人可能只是告诉你要思考,却从未解释过什么是思考,以及一个好的思考者具有什么素质,而一个差的思考者却缺乏。如果是这种情况,你有很多同伴。广泛、有效的思维训练是例外,而不是常规。这一事实及其不幸的后果是由以下对人类状况有成就的观察家的评论所表明的。

The most interesting and astounding contradiction in life is to me the constant insistence by nearly all people upon “logic,” “logical reasoning,” “sound reasoning,” on the one hand, and on the other their inability to display it, and their unwillingness to accept it when displayed by others.
Most of our so-called reasoning consists in finding arguments for going on believing as we already do.
Clear thinking is a very rare thing, but even just plain thinking is almost as rare. Most of us most of the time do not think at all. We believe and we feel, but we do not think.
Mental indolence is one of the commonest of human traits.

在我看来,生活中最有趣、最令人震惊的矛盾是,几乎所有的人一方面不断坚持 "逻辑"、"逻辑推理"、"合理的推理",另一方面却无法展示它,当别人展示它时,他们又不愿意接受。
我们所谓的推理大多是为继续相信我们已经做的事情寻找论据。
清晰的思考是一件非常罕见的事情,但即使是简单的思考也几乎同样罕见。我们中的大多数人在大多数时候根本就不思考。我们相信,我们感觉,但我们不思考。
精神上的懒惰是人类最常见的特征之一。

What is this activity that everyone claims is important but few people have mastered? Thinking is a general term used to cover numerous activities, from daydreaming to reflection and analysis. Here are just some of the synonyms listed in Roget’s Thesaurus for think:

这种人人都声称很重要但很少有人掌握的活动是什么?思考是一个笼统的术语,用于涵盖众多活动,从白日梦到反思和分析。以下是《罗杰特词库》中列出的一些关于思考的同义词。

appreciate believe cerebrate cogitate conceive consider

consult contemplate deliberate digest discuss dream

fancy imagine meditate muse ponder realize

reason reflect ruminate speculate suppose weigh 


All of those are just the names that thinking goes under. They really don’t explain it. The fact is, after thousands of years of humans’ 
experiencing thought and talking and writing about thinking, it remains in many respects one of the great mysteries of our existence. Still, though much is yet to be learned, a great deal is already known.

所有这些都只是思维的名称。它们真的不能解释它。事实是,在人类经历了数千年的思考、谈论和书写思考之后 ,在许多方面,它仍然是我们存在的最大谜团之一。不过,尽管还有很多东西有待学习,但有很多东西已经知道了。

Neuroscience has provided a number of valuable insights into the cognitive or thinking activities of the brain. It has documented that the left hemisphere of the brain deals mainly with detailed language processing and is associated with analysis and logical thinking, that the right hemisphere deals mainly with sensory images and is associated with intuition and creative thinking, and that the small bundle of nerves that lies between the hemispheres—the corpus callosum—integrates the various functions.

神经科学对大脑的认知或思维活动提供了许多有价值的见解。它记录了大脑的左半球主要处理详细的语言处理,与分析和逻辑思维有关,右半球主要处理感官图像,与直觉和创造性思维有关,而位于两个半球之间的一小束神经--胼胝体--整合了各种功能。

The research that produced these insights showed that the brain is necessary for thought, but it has not shown that the brain is sufficient for thought. 
In fact, many philosophers claim it can never show that. 
They argue that the mind and the brain are demonstrably different. Whereas
the brain is a physical entity composed of matter and therefore subject to
decay, the mind is a metaphysical entity. Examine brain cells under the
most powerful microscope and you will never see an idea or concept—
for example, beauty, government, equality, or love—because ideas and
concepts are not material entities and so have no physical dimension.
Where, then, do these nonmaterial things reside? In the nonmaterial mind

产生这些见解的研究表明,大脑是思想的必要条件,但它并没有表明大脑对思想来说是充分的。
事实上,许多哲学家声称它永远无法表明这一点。
他们认为,思想和大脑显然是不同的。大脑是一个由物质组成的物理实体,因此会腐烂,而心灵则是一个形而上的实体。
在最强大的显微镜下检查脑细胞,你将永远不会看到一个想法或概念--例如,美、政府、平等。
因为思想和概念不是物质实体,所以没有物理层面。
那么,这些非物质的东西存在于哪里?在非物质的头脑中

The late American philosopher William Barrett observed that “history is, fundamentally, the adventure of human consciousness” and “the fundamental history of humankind is the history of mind.” In his view, “one of the supreme ironies of modern history” is the fact that science, which owes its very existence to the human mind, has had the audacity to deny the reality of the mind. As he put it, “the offspring denies the parent.”6

The argument over whether the mind is a reality is not the only issue about the mind that has been hotly debated over the centuries. One espe- cially important issue is whether the mind is passive, a blank slate on which experience writes, as John Locke held, or active, a vehicle by which we take the initiative and exercise our free will, as G. W. Leibnitz argued. This book is based on the latter view.

Critical Thinking Defined

Let’s begin by making the important distinction between thinking and feeling. I feel and I think are sometimes used interchangeably, but that practice causes confusion. Feeling is a subjective response that reflects emotion, sentiment, or desire; it generally occurs spontaneously rather than through a conscious mental act. We don’t have to employ our minds to feel angry when we are insulted, afraid when we are threatened, or compassionate when we see a picture of a starving child. The feelings arise automatically. 

Feeling is useful in directing our attention to matters we should think about; it also can provide the enthusiasm and commitment necessary to complete arduous mental tasks. However, feeling is never a good substitute for thinking because it is notoriously unreliable. Some feelings are beneficial, honorable, even noble; others are not, as everyday experience demonstrates. We often feel like doing things that will harm us—for example, smoking, sunbathing without sunscreen, telling off our professor or employer, or spending the rent money on lottery tickets.

感觉在引导我们关注我们应该思考的问题方面很有用;它还可以提供完成艰巨的精神任务所需的热情和承诺。然而,感觉从来不是思考的好替代品,因为它是出了名的不可靠。有些感觉是有益的,可敬的,甚至是高尚的;有些则不是,正如日常经验所证明的那样。我们经常感觉要做一些会伤害我们的事情--例如,吸烟、不涂防晒霜晒太阳、向教授或雇主告状,或把房租钱花在彩票上。

Zinedine Zidane was one of the greatest soccer players of his generation, and many experts believed that in his final season (2006) he would lead France to the pinnacle of soccer success—winning the coveted World Cup. But then, toward the end of the championship game against Italy, he viciously head-butted an Italian player in full view of hundreds of mil- lions of people. The referee banished him from the field, France lost the match, and a single surrender to feeling forever stained the brilliant career Zidane had dedicated his life to building.

齐达内是他那一代人中最伟大的足球运动员之一,许多专家认为,在他的最后一个赛季(2006年),他将带领法国队达到足球成功的顶峰--赢得梦寐以求的世界杯。但是,在对阵意大利的冠军赛即将结束时,他在数亿人的注视下恶狠狠地用头撞向一名意大利球员。裁判员将他驱逐出场,法国队输掉了比赛,一次投降的感觉永远玷污了齐达内毕生致力于建立的辉煌事业。

In contrast to feeling, thinking is a conscious mental process performed to solve a problem, make a decision, or gain understanding.* Whereas feeling has no purpose beyond expressing itself, thinking aims beyond itself to knowledge or action. This is not to say that thinking is infallible; in fact, a good part of this book is devoted to exposing errors in thinking and showing you how to avoid them. 

与感觉相反,思考是一个有意识的心理过程,它是为了解决问题、做出决定或获得理解而形成的。这并不是说思考是无懈可击的;事实上,本书有很大一部分篇幅是在揭露思考中的错误,并告诉你如何避免这些错误。

Yet for all its shortcomings, thinking is the most reliable guide to action we humans possess. To sum up the relationship between feeling and thinking, feelings need to be tested before being trusted, and thinking is the most reasonable and reliable way to test them.

然而,尽管有种种缺点,思考是我们人类拥有的最可靠的行动指南。总结一下感觉和思考之间的关系,感觉在被信任之前需要被检验,而思考是检验感觉的最合理、最可靠的方式。

There are three broad categories of thinking: reflective, creative, and critical. The focus of this book is on critical thinking. The essence of critical thinking is evaluation. Critical thinking, therefore, may be defined as the process by which we test claims and arguments and determine which have merit and which do not.

思考有三大类:反思性、创造性和批判性。本书的重点是批判性思维。批判性思维的本质是评价。因此,批判性思维可以被定义为一个过程,通过这个过程,我们检验主张和论点,并确定哪些有价值,哪些没有价值。

In other words, critical thinking is a search for answers, a quest. Not surprisingly, one of the most important techniques used in critical thinking is asking probing questions. Where the uncritical accept their first thoughts and other people’s statements at face value, critical thinkers challenge all ideas in this manner:

换句话说,批判性思维是一种寻找答案的过程,是一种探索。毫不奇怪,批判性思维中使用的最重要技巧之一是提出探究性问题。不批判的人接受他们的第一想法和其他人的陈述的表面价值,而批判性思维者则以这种方式挑战所有的想法。

Thought

Professor Vile cheated me in my composition grade. He weighted some themes more heavily than others.

Before women entered the work force, there were fewer divorces. That shows that

a woman’s place is in the home.

A college education isn’t worth what you pay for it. Some people never reach

a salary level appreciably higher than the level they would have reached without the degree.

Question

Did he grade everyone on the same standard? Were the dif- ferent weightings justified?

How do you know that this factor, and not some other one(s), is responsible for the increase in divorces?

Is money the only measure of the worth of an education? What about increased under- standing of self and life and increased ability to cope with challenges?


思考

维尔教授在我的作文成绩中欺骗了我。他把一些主题看得比其他主题更重。

在妇女进入劳动力市场之前,离婚的情况较少。这表明女人的位置是在家里。

大学教育并不值得你为它付出什么。有些人从未达到的工资水平明显高于他们在没有学位的情况下会达到的水平。

问题

他是否以相同的标准给每个人打分?不同的权重是合理的吗?

你怎么知道是这个因素,而不是其他因素导致了离婚率的上升?

钱是衡量教育价值的唯一标准吗?对自我和生活的认识的提高以及应对挑战的能力的提高又如何呢?


Critical thinking also employs questions to analyze issues. Consider, for example, the subject of values. When it is being discussed, some peo- ple say, “Our country has lost its traditional values” and “There would be less crime, especially violent crime, if parents and teachers emphasized moral values.” Critical thinking would prompt us to ask,

  1. What is the relationship between values and beliefs? Between values and convictions?

  2. Are all values valuable?

  3. How aware is the average person of his or her values? Is it possible

    that many people deceive themselves about their real values?

  4. Where do one’s values originate? Within the individual or outside? In thought or in feeling?

  5. Does education change a person’s values? If so, is this change always for the better?

  6. Should parents and teachers attempt to shape children’s values?

    Characteristics of Critical Thinkers

A number of misconceptions exist about critical thinking. One is that being able to support beliefs with reasons makes one a critical thinker. Virtually everyone has reasons, however weak they may be. The test of critical thinking is whether the reasons are good and sufficient.

Another misconception is that critical thinkers never imitate others in thought or action. If that were the case, then every eccentric would be a critical thinker. Critical thinking means making sound decisions, regard- less of how common or uncommon those decisions are. 

批判性思维也采用了问题来分析问题。例如,考虑一下价值观的问题。当它被讨论时,一些人说:"我们的国家已经失去了传统的价值观","如果父母和老师强调道德价值观,就会减少犯罪,特别是暴力犯罪。" 批判性思维会促使我们去问。

1. 价值观和信仰之间的关系是什么?价值观和信念之间的关系?

2. 所有的价值观都有价值吗?

3. 3.一般人对自己的价值观有多了解?是否有可能

许多人在自己的真实价值方面欺骗自己吗?

4. 4.一个人的价值观源自哪里?在个人内部还是外部?在思想中还是在感觉中?

5. 教育是否会改变一个人的价值观?如果是的话,这种改变总是向好的方面发展吗?

6. 6.父母和教师是否应该试图塑造孩子的价值观?

批判性思维者的特征

关于批判性思维存在一些误解。其一是认为能够用理由支持信念就能成为批判性思维者。实际上,每个人都有理由,无论这些理由多么薄弱。检验批判性思维的标准是理由是否充分。

另一个误解是,批判性思维者在思想或行动上从不模仿他人。如果是这样的话,那么每个古怪的人都会是批判性思维者。批判性思维意味着做出合理的决定,而不考虑这些决定有多常见或不常见。

It is also a misconception that critical thinking is synonymous with having a lot of right answers in one’s head. There’s nothing wrong with having right answers, of course. But critical thinking involves the process of finding answers when they are not so readily available.

这也是一个误解,认为批判性思维就是脑子里有很多正确答案的同义词。当然,拥有正确答案并没有错。但批判性思维涉及在答案不那么容易得到的情况下寻找答案的过程。

The most careless, sloppy thinker can become a critical thinker by developing the characteristics of a critical thinker. This is not to say that all people have equal thinking potential but rather that everyone can achieve dramatic improvement.

通过培养批判性思维者的特征,最粗心、最马虎的思维者也能成为批判性思维者。这并不是说所有的人都有同等的思维潜力,而是说每个人都可以取得巨大的进步。

We have already noted one characteristic of critical thinkers—skill in asking appropriate questions. Another is control of one’s mental activities. 

John Dewey once observed that more of our time than most of us care to admit is spent “trifling with mental pictures, random recollections, pleasant but unfounded hopes, flitting, half-developed impressions.”7 

Good thinkers are no exception. 

我们已经注意到批判性思维者的一个特征--提出适当问题的技能。另一个特点是控制自己的心理活动。约翰-杜威曾经指出,我们的时间比我们大多数人都愿意承认的要多,"花在了精神图片、随机回忆、愉快但毫无根据的希望、飘忽不定的、半发展的印象上"。

好的思想家也不例外。

They have learned, in other words, how to take charge of their thoughts, to use their minds 

acively as well as passively.

Here are some additional characteristics of critical thinkers, as contrasted with those of uncritical thinkers:

Critical Thinkers . . .

Are honest with themselves, acknowledging what they don’t know, recognizing their limitations, and being watchful of their own errors.

Regard problems and controversial issues as exciting challenges.

Strive for understanding, keep curiosity alive, remain patient with complexity, and are ready to invest time to overcome confusion.

Uncritical Thinkers . . .

Pretend they know more than they do, ignore their limitations, and assume their views are error-free.

Regard problems and controversial issues as nuisances
or threats to their ego.

Are impatient with complexity and thus would rather remain confused than make the effort to understand. 

换句话说,他们已经学会了如何掌控自己的思想,如何主动和被动地使用自己的思想。

以下是批判性思维者与非批判性思维者的一些额外特征。

批判性思考者......。

对自己诚实,承认他们不知道的东西,认识到他们的局限性,并注意自己的错误。

把问题和有争议的问题看作是令人兴奋的挑战。

努力寻求理解,保持好奇心,对复杂问题保持耐心,并准备投入时间来克服困惑。

非批判性思考者......

假装他们知道的比自己多,忽视他们的局限性,并认为他们的观点是没有错误的。

把问题和有争议的问题看成是讨厌的事情

或对其自我的威胁。

对复杂性不耐烦,因此宁愿保持困惑,也不愿意努力去理解。

Base judgments on evidence rather than personal preferences, deferring judgment whenever evidence is insufficient. They revise judgments when new evidence reveals error.

Base judgments on first impressions and gut reactions.They are unconcerned about the amount or quality of evidence and cling to their views steadfastly.

獨立思考者......。根据证据而不是个人喜好作出判断,在证据不充分时推迟判断。当新的证据显示出错误时,他们会修改判断。

非獨立思考者...根据第一印象和直觉反应进行判断。他们不关心证据的数量或质量,坚定不移地坚持自己的观点。

Are interested in other people’s ideas and so are willing to read and listen attentively, even when they tend to disagree with the other person.

Are preoccupied with them- selves and their own opinions and so are unwilling to pay attention to others’ views. At the first sign of disagreement, they tend to think, “How can I refute this?”

獨立思考者......

对其他人的想法感兴趣,因此愿意认真阅读和倾听,即使他们倾向于与对方意见相左。

非獨立思考者...

专注于他们自己和他们自己的意见,因此不愿意注意别人的意见。一有不同意见,他们就会想:"我怎么能反驳呢?"

Recognize that extreme views (whether conservative or liberal) are seldom correct, so they avoid them, practice fairmindedness, and seek a balanced view.

Ignore the need for balance and give preference to views that support their established views.

认识到极端的观点(无论是保守派还是自由派)很少是正确的。因此,他们避免这些观点,实行公平心态,并寻求 平衡的观点。

忽视平衡的需要,优先考虑支持自己既定观点的意见。

Practice restraint, controlling their feelings rather than being controlled by them, and thinking before acting.

Tend to follow their feelings and act impulsively.

实行克制,控制自己的感情,而不是被感情所控制,在行动之前先思考。

倾向于跟随自己的感觉,冲动行事。


As the desirable qualities suggest, critical thinking depends on men- tal discipline. Effective thinkers exert control over their mental life, direct their thoughts rather than being directed by them, and withhold their endorsement of any idea—even their own—until they have tested and confirmed it. John Dewey equated this mental discipline with freedom. That is, he argued that people who do not have it are not free persons but slaves to whim or circumstance:

If a man’s actions are not guided by thoughtful conclusions, then they are guided by inconsiderate impulse, unbalanced appetite, caprice, or the circumstances of the moment. To cultivate unhindered, unreflective external activity is to foster enslavement, for it leaves the person at the

8

The Role of Intuition

Intuition is commonly defined as immediate perception or compre- hension of something—that is, sensing or understanding something without the use of reasoning. Some everyday experiences seem to sup- port this definition. You may have met a stranger and instantly “known” that you would be partners for life. When a car salesman told you that the price he was quoting you was his final, rock-bottom price, your intuition may have told you he was lying. On the first day of a particular course, you may have had a strong sense that you would not do well in it. 


正如这些理想的品质所表明的那样,批判性思维取决于心理纪律。有效的思考者对他们的精神生活进行控制,引导他们的思想,而不是被他们引导,并且在他们测试和确认之前,不认可任何想法,甚至是他们自己的想法。约翰-杜威将这种精神纪律与自由等同起来。也就是说,他认为,没有自由的人不是自由人,而是心血来潮或环境的奴隶。

如果一个人的行为不是由深思熟虑的结论指导的,那么他们就是由不周到的冲动、不平衡的食欲、任性或当时的环境指导的。培养不受阻碍、不加思考的外部活动就是培养奴役,因为它使人处于被奴役的状态。

直觉的作用

直觉通常被定义为对某种事物的直接感知或理解--也就是说,在不使用推理的情况下感觉到或理解某种事物。一些日常经验似乎支持了这个定义。你可能遇到过一个陌生人,并立即 "知道 "你们将成为终身的伙伴。当一个汽车销售员告诉你,他给你的价格是他最终的最低价格时,你的直觉可能已经告诉你他在撒谎。在某门课程的第一天,你可能有一种强烈的感觉,认为自己不会有好成绩。

Some important discoveries seem to have occurred instantaneously. For example, the German chemist Kekule found the solution to a difficult chemical problem intuitively. He was very tired when he slipped into a daydream. The image of a snake swallowing its tail came to him—and that provided the clue to the structure of the benzene molecule, which is a ring, rather than a chain, of atoms.

一些重要的发现似乎是在瞬间发生的。例如,德国化学家凯库勒凭直觉找到了一个困难的化学问题的解决方案。他在非常疲惫的情况下陷入了 白日梦。他想到了蛇吞尾巴的形象--这为他提供了结构的线索。这为苯分子的结构提供了线索,它是 它是一个环状原子,而不是一个链状原子。


Which view of intuitions is the correct one? Are intuitions different from and independent of thinking or not? Perhaps, for now, the most prudent answer is that sometimes they are independent and sometimes they are not; we can’t be sure when they are, and therefore it is imprudent to rely on them.

哪种关于直觉的观点是正确的?直觉是否与思维不同,是否独立于思维?也许,就目前而言,最合理的答案是:有时它们是独立的,有时不是;我们无法确定它们何时是独立的,因此,依赖它们是不谨慎的。

Basic Activities in Critical Thinking

The basic activities in critical thinking are investigation, interpretation, and judgment, in that order. The following chart summarizes each activity in relation to the other two.

批判性思维的基本活动
批判性思维的基本活动是调查、解释和判断,按顺序排列。下面的图表总结了每项活动与其他两项活动的关系。

活动
调查 
解释
判断

定义
寻找证据,即能够回答有关问题的关键问题的数据
决定证据的含义
对该问题得出结论

要求
证据必须是相关和充分的。
解释必须比竞争对手的解释更合理。
结论必须符合逻辑的检验。

As we noted previously, irresponsible thinkers first choose their conclusions and then seek out evidence to justify their choices. They fail to realize that the only conclusion worth drawing is one based on a thorough understanding of the problem or issue and its possible solutions or resolutions. Is it acceptable to speculate, guess, and form hunches and hypotheses? Absolutely. Such activities provide a helpful starting point for the thinking process. (Besides, we couldn’t avoid doing so even if we tried.) The crucial thing is not to let hunches and hypotheses manipulate our thinking and dictate our conclusion in advance.

正如我们之前指出的,不负责任的思考者首先选择他们的结论,然后寻找证据来证明他们的选择。他们没有意识到,唯一值得得出的结论是基于对问题或议题及其可能的解决方案或解决办法的全面理解。推测、猜测、形成预感和假说是否可以接受?当然可以。这些活动为思考过程提供了一个有用的起点。(此外,即使我们想避免这样做,也是不可能的。)关键是不要让预感和假设操纵我们的思维,预先决定我们的结论。


Critical Thinking and Writing

Writing may be used for either of two broad purposes: to discover ideas or to communicate them. Most of the writing you have done in school is undoubtedly the latter kind. But the former can be very helpful, not only in sorting out ideas you’ve already produced, but also in stimulating the flow of new ideas. For some reason, the very act of writing down one idea seems to generate additional ideas.

批判性思维和写作

写作可用于两大目的之一:发现思想或交流思想。你在学校所做的大部分写作无疑是后一种。但前者可能非常有帮助,不仅可以整理你已经产生的想法,而且还可以刺激新想法的流动。出于某种原因,写下一个想法的行为本身似乎会产生更多的想法。

Whenever you write to discover ideas, focus on the issue you are examining and record all your thoughts, questions, and assertions. Don’t worry about organization or correctness. If ideas come slowly, be patient. If they come suddenly, in a rush, don’t try to slow down the process and develop any one of them; simply jot them all down. (There will be time for elaboration and correction later.) Direct your mind’s effort, but be sensitive to ideas on the fringe of consciousness. Often they, too, will prove valuable.

If you have done your discovery writing well and have thought critically about the ideas you have produced, the task of writing to communicate will be easier and more enjoyable. You will have many more ideas—carefully evaluated ones—to develop and organize.

每当你写作发现想法时,把注意力集中在你正在研究的问题上,并记录你所有的想法、问题和论断。不要担心组织或正确性。如果想法来得慢,要有耐心。如果它们突然出现,匆匆忙忙,不要试图放慢进程,发展其中的任何一个;只要把它们都记下来。(指导你的思维努力,但对意识边缘的想法要敏感。通常,它们也会被证明是有价值的。

如果你已经很好地完成了你的发现写作,并对你所产生的想法进行了批判性思考,那么写作交流的任务就会更容易、更愉快。你会有更多的想法--经过仔细评估的想法--来发展和组织。


Critical Thinking and Discussion

At its best, discussion deepens understanding and promotes problem solving and decision making. At its worst, it frays nerves, creates animosity, and leaves important issues unresolved. Unfortunately, the most prominent models for discussion in contemporary culture—radio and TV talk shows—often produce the latter effects.

批判性思维和讨论

在最好的情况下,讨论能加深理解,促进问题的解决和决策的制定。在最坏的情况下,讨论会破坏神经,产生敌意,并使重要问题得不到解决。不幸的是,当代文化中最突出的讨论模式--广播和电视谈话节目--常常产生后一种效果。

Many hosts demand that their guests answer complex questions with simple “yes” or “no” answers. If the guests respond that way, they are attacked for oversimplifying. If, instead, they try to offer a balanced answer, the host shouts, “You’re not answering the question,” and proceeds to answer it himself. Guests who agree with the host are treated warmly; others are dismissed as ignorant or dishonest. Often as not, when two guests are debating, each takes a turn interrupting while the other shouts, “Let me finish.” Neither shows any desire to learn from the other. Typically, as the show draws to a close, the host thanks the participants for a “vigorous debate” and promises the audience more of the same next time.

许多主持人要求他们的客人用简单的 "是 "或 "不是 "回答复杂的问题。如果嘉宾这样回答,他们就会被抨击为过度简化。如果他们试图提供一个平衡的答案,主持人就会大喊:"你没有回答这个问题",然后自己继续回答这个问题。同意主持人观点的客人会受到热情款待;其他人则会被视为无知或不诚实而被拒绝。通常情况下,当两个客人在辩论时,每个人都会轮流打断,而另一个人则大喊:"让我说完"。两人都没有表现出向对方学习的愿望。通常情况下,当节目接近尾声时,主持人会感谢参与者的 "激烈辩论",并向观众承诺下次会有更多相同的辩论。


Set reasonable expectations. Have you ever left a discussion disappointed that others hadn’t abandoned their views and embraced yours? Have you ever felt offended when someone disagreed with you or asked you what evidence you had to support your opinion? If the answer to either question is yes, you probably expect too much of others. People seldom change their minds easily or quickly, particularly in the case of long-held convictions.And when they encounter ideas that differ from their own, they naturally want to know what evidence supports those ideas. Expect to have your ideas questioned, and be cheerful and gracious in responding.

设定合理的期望。你是否曾经因为别人没有放弃自己的观点而拥护你的观点而失望地离开讨论?当有人不同意你的观点或问你有什么证据支持你的观点时,你是否曾感到被冒犯?如果这两个问题的答案都是肯定的,你可能对别人期望过高。人们很少轻易或迅速改变自己的想法,特别是在长期坚持的信念方面。当他们遇到与自己不同的想法时,他们自然想知道有什么证据支持这些想法。期待你的想法被质疑,并在回应时表现得愉快和亲切。

.Leave egotism and personal agendas at the door. To be productive, discussion requires an atmosphere of mutual respect and civility. Egotism produces disrespectful attitudes toward others—notably, “I’m more important than other people,” “My ideas are better than anyone else’s,” and “Rules don’t apply to me.” Personal agendas, such as dislike for another participant or excessive zeal for a point of view, can lead to personal attacks and unwillingness to listen to others’ views.

把自我主义和个人议程留在门外。为了富有成效,讨论需要一个相互尊重和文明的氛围。利己主义会产生对他人不尊重的态度,特别是 "我比别人更重要"、"我的想法比别人的好"、"规则不适用于我"。个人目的,如不喜欢另一个参与者或过度热衷于某种观点,会导致人身攻击和不愿意听取他人的意见。

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