Beyond feelings - A guide to critical thinking / Vincent Ryan Ruggiero 批判性思考指南

上午6:31

英文书朗读阅读练习,中文为自我理解,并非中文书翻译内容

Introduction

Beyond feeling is designed to introduce you to the subject of critical thinking .

The subject may be new to you because it has not been emphasized(重视,注重) in most elementary and secondary schools.

In fact, until fairly recently most colleges gave it little attention.

For the past fore decades , the dominant emphasis (主要强调)has been on subjectivity rather then objectivity on feeling rather then on thought.

简介

超越感觉这本书是为了向你介绍什么是批判性思考。

这个主题对你来说可能是新的,因为它在大多数小学和中学都没有被强调。

事实上,直到最近,大多数大学才开始关注批判性思考。

在过去的四十年里,主要强调的是主观性而不是客观性,强调的是感觉而不是思想。

Over the past several decades , however , a number of studies of American's schools have criticized the neglect (忽视)of critical thinking , and a growing number of educators and leaders in business , industry ,and professions have urged(敦促,促成,强烈希望) the development of new course and teaching materials to overcome that neglect.

然而,在过去的几十年里,对美国学校的一些研究批评了对批判性思维的忽视,越来越多的教育家和商业、工业和专业领域的领导人,敦促开发新的课程和教材以克服这种忽视。

It is no exaggeration( 夸张) to say that critical thinking is one of the most important subjects you will study in college regardless (不管)of your academic(学术) major. 

The quality of your schoolwork, your efforts(努力) in your career, your contributions(贡献) to community life, your conduct(执行)of personal affairs(事务)—all will depend on your ability to solve problems and make decisions.

毫不夸张地说,批判性思维是你在大学里将学习的最重要的科目之一,无论你的学术专业是什么。

你的学校作业的质量,你在职业生涯中的努力,你对社区生活的贡献,你对个人事务的处理--所有这一切都取决于你解决问题和做出决定的能力.

This book has three main sections. The first "The context"(背景,语境) will help you understand such important concepts as individuality(个性) , critical thinking , truth , knowledge , opinion , evidence and argument and overcome attitudes and ideas that obstruct critical thinking.

本书有三个主要部分。第一部分 "背景 "将帮助你理解诸如个性、批判性思维、真理、知识、观点、证据和论证等重要概念,并克服阻碍批判性思维的态度和观念。

The second section,"The Pitfalls"(陷阱),will teach you to recognize and avoid the most common errors in thinking.

The third section "A strategy",will help you acquire(獲得) the various(各式各樣)skills used in addressing problems and issues.

The section includes tip on identifying and overcoming (克服)your personal intellectual(智力) weakness as well as techniques for becoming more observant clarifying issues.

Conducting inquiries evaluating evidence analyzing other peoples's reviews and making sound judgments.

第二部分,"陷阱",将教你认识和避免思维中最常见的错误。

第三部分 "策略 "将帮助你获得处理问题和议题时使用的各种技能。

该部分包括识别和克服个人智力弱点的提示,以及提高观察力澄清问题的技巧。

进行调查,评估证据,分析其他人的评论,并作出正确的判断。

At the and of each chapter, you will find a number of applications cover problems and issues both timely(及時) and timeless.

the final application in each of the first thirteen chapters invites you to examine(審查)an especially important issue about which informed(報告資料) opinion(意見) is divided(分歧)

在每一章的后面,你会发现一些应用涵盖了及时和永恒的问题和议题。

前十三章中每一章的最后一个应用都会邀请你研究一个特别重要的问题,对于这个问题,知情者的意见存在分歧。

Students sometimes get the idea that textbook must be read page by page and that reading ahead violates(違反) some unwritten rule.

This notion is mistaken.

Students background knowledge varies(不盡相同) widely, what one student knows very well , another knows only vaguely(隱約) and third is totally unfamiliar  with. Anytime you need or want to look ahead to an explanation in a later chapter, by all means do so. Let's say you make a statement and a friends says "That's relativism (相對主義)pure and simple If you aren't  sure exactly what she means to go the index, look up "relativism" proceed(著手進行) to appropriate page and find out.

学生们有时会有这样的想法:课本必须一页一页地读,提前阅读违反了一些不成文的规定。

这种想法是错误的。

学生的背景知识差异很大,一个学生非常了解,另一个学生只是模糊地了解,第三个学生则完全不熟悉。任何时候你需要或想在后面的章节中提前看一下解释,都可以这样做。比方说,你做了一个声明,一个朋友说:"这就是纯粹的相对主义。 如果你不确定她到底是什么意思,就去找索引,查找 "相对主义",然后进入相应的页面,找出答案。

Looking ahead is especially prudent ˈpruː.d ə nt /(謹慎) in the case concepts and procedures(程序) relevant to the end-of-chapter applications. One such concept is plagiarism ˈpleɪ.dʒɚ.ɪ.z ə m /(抄襲). If you are not completely clear on what 

constitutes ˈkɑːn.stə.tuːt /(構成) plagiarism , why it is unacceptable , and how to avoid it , take a few minutes right now to learn. Look for the section "Avoiding Plagiarism " toward the end of the chapter 2.

Similarly, if you are not as skilled as you would like to be doing library or internet research , it would be a good idea to read chapter 17 now. Doing so could save you a great deal of time and effort completing homework as assignment (任務) əˈsaɪn.mənt /

在与章末应用相关的案例概念和程序中,提前看一看是特别谨慎的。其中一个概念是剽窃。如果你不完全清楚什么是抄袭,为什么它是不可接受的,以及如何避免它,现在就花几分钟时间来学习。请在第二章末尾寻找 "避免剽窃 "一节。

同样,如果你在图书馆或互联网上的研究还不够熟练,那么现在阅读第17章将是一个好主意。这样做可以为你节省大量的时间和精力来完成家庭作业。


The Context  (背景介紹,情境,脈絡,框架,上下文)

這裏意外查找到了陳芳誼解釋與介紹 “context and content” ,很多例句跟用法,

Anyone who wishes to master an activity must first understand its tools and rules. 
This is as true of critical thinking as it is of golf, carpentry(木工), flying a plane, or brain surgery(外科手術). In critical thinking, however, the tools are not material objects but concepts, and the rules govern ˈɡʌv.ɚn /mental rather than physical performance. 
This first section explores seven important concepts—individuality, critical thinking, truth, knowledge, opinion, evidence, and argument— with a chapter devoted(在...投入) to each. Most of these concepts are so familiar that you may be inclined ɪnˈklaɪnd /(傾向)to wonder whether there is any point to examining them. The answer is yes, for three reasons. 

First, much of what is commonly believed about these concepts is mistaken. Second, who ever examines them carefully is always rewarded with fresh insights. Third, the more thorough  ˈθɝː.oʊ /(徹底)your knowledge of these concepts, the more proficient  prəˈfɪʃ。ə nt /(精通)you will be in your thinking.

任何希望掌握一项活动的人都必须首先了解其工具和规则。批判性思维和高尔夫、木工、驾驶飞机或脑外科手术一样,都是如此。

然而,在批判性思维中,工具不是物质,而是概念。规则支配着精神上而不是身体上的表现。

这第一节探讨了七个重要的概念--个体性。
批判性思维、真理、知识、观点、证据和论证。
每个概念都有一章专门讨论。这些概念中的大多数是如此熟悉,以至于你可能倾向于怀疑研究这些概念是否有任何意义。

答案是肯定的,原因有三。

首先,人们对这些概念的普遍看法有很多是错误的。
第二,仔细研究这些概念的人总是能获得新的见解。
第三,你对这些概念的了解越透彻,你的思维就会越熟练。


CHAPTER 1 
Who Are You? 

Suppose someone asked, “Who are you?” It would be simple enough to respond with your name. But if the person wanted to know the entire story about who you are, the question would be more difficult to answer. 
You’d obviously have to give the details of your height, age, and weight. You’d also have to include all your sentiments(情緒) ˈsen.t̬ə.mənt / and preferences(偏好) /ˈpref.ər.əns/, even the secret ones you’ve never shared with anyone—your affection (感情)for your loved ones; your desire to please the people you associate with; your dislike of your older sister’s husband; your allegiance (忠誠)əˈliː.dʒ ə ns /to your favorite beverageˈbev.ɚ.ɪdʒ /,(飲料) brand of clothing, and music.

假设有人问:"你是谁?" 回答你的名字是很简单的。
但如果这个人想知道关于你是谁的整个故事,这个问题就比较难回答了。你显然必须提供你的身高、年龄和体重等细节。你还必须包括你所有的情感和喜好,甚至是你从未与任何人分享过的秘密--你对你所爱的人的感情;你想取悦与你交往的人;你不喜欢你姐姐的丈夫;你对你最喜欢的饮料、服装品牌和音乐的忠诚度。

Your attitudes couldn’t be overlooked either—your impatience when an issue gets complex, your aversion(厭惡)əˈvɝː.ʃ ə n /to certain courses, your fear of high places and dogs and speaking in public. The list would go on. To be complete, it would have to include all your characteristics(特徵)ˌker.ək.təˈrɪs.tɪk /—not only the physical but also the emotional and intellectual. (知識份子,以邏輯思考的能力)ˌɪn.t̬ ə lˈek.tʃu.əl /To provide all that information would be quite a chore (瑣事,令人不快)tʃɔːr /. But suppose the questioner was still curious and asked, “How did you get the way you are?” If your patience were not yet exhausted, chances are you’d answer something like this: “I’m this way because I choose to be, because I’ve considered other sentiments and preferences and attitudes and have made my selections. The ones I have chosen fit my style and personality best.” That answer is natural enough, and in part it’s true. But in a larger sense, it’s not true. The impact of the world on all of us is much greater than most of us realize.

你的态度也不能被忽视--当一个问题变得复杂时,你的不耐烦,你对某些课程的厌恶,你对高处、狗和公开演讲的恐惧。这个名单还在继续。为了完整起见,它必须包括你所有的特征--不仅是身体上的,还有情感和智力上的。

要提供所有这些信息将是一件相当麻烦的事情。但是,假设提问者仍然很好奇,问道:"你是怎么变成这样的?" 如果你的耐心还没有耗尽,你有可能会这样回答。"我是这样的,因为我选择了这样的方式,我已经考虑了其他的情感、偏好和态度,并且做出了自己的选择。我选择的那些风格和个性最适合我的" 这个答案很自然,而且在一定程度上它是真实的。但在更大的某种意义上,这不是真的。世界对我们所有人的影响要比我们大多数人意识到的大得多。


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